1. Mountains 2. Rivers 3. Deserts The Gateway to the West The pioneers first traveled by stagecoach and wagon. It was dangerous, took a long time, and was expensive. The train made travel quicker, safer, and less expensive. The Great American Desert. The Breadbasket is what it was called once the steel plow and mechanical reaper were used to cut through the grass and they revealed rich farmland. 1. Rocky Mountains 2. Colorado River 3. Columbia River 4. Mississippi River 5. Snake River Winter- snow storms, cold, blizzards, frozen water, lack of food, cold Spring- floods, tornadoes, lightning, storms Summer- swarms of insects, dust storms, hot, fires Fall- fires, insects, drought They had to live on the land for 5 years. It cost $10.00 and gave people the rights to land. Approximately 160 acres. **Refer back to your map notes for help- a blank map like this will be on the test** Rocky Mountains Columbia River Colorado River Snake River Mississippi River The population decreased greatly. The buffalo were killed by pioneers moving west and by riflemen on the trains hired by the railroad. The buffalo were the main source of food for the Native Americans and this impacted their lives greatly. The railroad brought people to the west and they built towns and cities. The trains helped trade by transporting goods faster and cheaper. The railroad DID impact the environment by changing the landscape. It also polluted the air and water due to the smoke. It increased coal production and caused more mining. The cowboys worked for the ranchers to take their cattle to the market. Cowboys and farmers did not get along because the cowboys wanted to cross the farmlands with all their cattle and it would ruin the farmers crops. Asian Immigrants European Immigrants Native Americans Mexican Americans **Mainly most Asian Immigrants who were nicknamed Coolies* They 1st came in search of gold and silver and then later worked on the building the Transcontinental Railroad. Irish Immigrants built from east to west Chinese Immigrants built from west to east. When gold was found in the black hill reservation they were forced off their land. Custer’s Last Stand. It created public support for the U.S. army to crush the Native American resistance in this area. SS textbook pg. 157 They tried to flea to Canada but they were surrounded and sent to a reservation in Oklahoma. The Native Americans believed the land belonged to the GROUP, and not individual people like the whites believed. Native American children were taken to boarding schools like the Carlisle School in Pennsylvania and they were forced to change their culture. For example, they were forced to farm and wear white people clothes.