1293002136SUZA 01 Introduction to Development Studies

Report
Introduction to Development
Studies
THE STATE UNIVERSITY OF ZANZIBAR
(SUZA)
1
What is a development Studies
Research field examining problems in the
developing countries
Comparative focus on international development
of human societies
Multi-discliplinary social science: primary
normative object on social, political and
economic issues
Research interest of the post-WWII world (Cold
War)
Motivated by underdevelopment in the
decolonizing Third World
Knowledge to guide development interventions,
later problematizing also the intervention itself
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What does DS do?
It provide basic information on the
situation of the developing countries in an
international context, from the
perspectives of social and political
development.
It provide Central theories and
explanatory models referring to the
international development problem are
also presented.
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What is the objectives of this DS
Course?
The objective of this course is:• To expose students to the theories and problems
of social development in the world in general and
in particular to Africa and Tanzania.
• To enable students to develop appropriate tools
of analysis and integrating theory and practice
• To guide student to an understanding of
alternative development strategies.
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What is to be covered?
• Semester I
• Semester II
Theories of social development
Social and Political Development in
Africa
 Under development
 Political Economy
 The emergency and
development of capitalism
and imperialism in Europe
 The development of
political thought
 Culture
 Population and resources.






State and civil society
Gender issues
Industrialization
Science and technology
Government and development
Tanzania foreign policy
I
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Social Development assume
We evaluate that certain social, economic and
political conditions and systems are more
developed than others.
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What is development
• Different people have different understanding of
the term. However they all end comparing space
and time because development is a relative term.
“This is the moment when we must build on the
wealth that open markets have created, and
share its benefits more equitably. Trade has been
a cornerstone of our growth and global
development. But we will not be able to sustain
this growth if it favours the few, and not the
many”
Barack Obama
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WHAT IS DEVELOPMENT?
• Is a process of economic and social transformation
which is based on complex cultural and environmental
factors and their interactions.
• Development is a process of improved standard of
living.
• Development was a process in which ‘societies’
defined as nation states pass through similar stages of
development on the road to an end state.
• Development is a multi-dimensional and multi-sectoral
process, involving social, economic and political change
aimed at improving people’s lives.
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WHAT IS DEVELOPMENT?
Development refers both to the ends of social change and
to the means employed to reach these: to the vision of
a better life. Development poses value conflicts in four
respects:
● Debates over goals: economic growth, meeting basic
needs, cultural survival, ecological balance, power
transfers;
● competing political systems.
● Contending economic systems: rival claims on
resources and differing rules of access to resources
● Conflicts between modernity and tradition.
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Human Development
• It is the process of enlarging people choices it
has about four aspect:• For people to lead a long and a healthy life
• For people to acquire knowledge
• For people to have access to resources needed
for a descent standard of living.
• People enjoyed self respect and guaranteed
human right.
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Under Development.
• US-President Truman’s ‘bold new program’
announced on January 20, 1949, defined Africa, Asia
and Latin America as ‘underdeveloped areas’ in need
of ‘development’
• Underdevelopment is the absence of modern
economic growth that characterizes Third
world countries by comparison with the
developed nations of the West.
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Three Dimensions of Development
As a process – Patterns of
change in the global
political economy of
capitalism
As an object of knowledge
– Theories about
development as a process
and a project
As a project – Policies and
strategies that seek to give
shape to and control processes
of social change
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Focus in Development
1. indicators and symbols of development
2. causal relationships, rules and methods
constituting knowledge
3. historical context
4. political agenda-setting
(idiologies/phylosophy)
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Indicators and symbols of
development
Health
Economic resources
Education
Social integration
Housing
Security
Recreation
Political resources
- physical abilites, illnesses,doctor
- income, wealth, property
-
years of education
attachments and contacts
-
space, nr of persons/room
exposure of violence/theft
-
leisure pursuits, theatres
voting, memberships
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Causal relationships
1. Physical Environment
-
Climate
Resources
Communication
2. Social Environment
-
Social systems and their mechanisms
3. Heredity
-
Intelligence
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Historical Context
Development
• makes sense only in the realization
of history
• is not, however, reduced to history
• is more abstract and theoretical than
history (past, history, development)
• is manifested in histories (plural)
• is considered as a reaction to
problems
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Political Agenda-Setting
• different definitions and focuses highlight
different evaluations, which
• privilege particular political interests or
cultural preferences and
• set particular policy implications and future
projects
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References:
• Pieterse, J.N (2004) Development Theory. Vistaar: New
Delh
• Keller,S; Light, D. And Calhoum,G (2004) Introduction
to Sociology. McGrwa Hill. NY
• Hutton, John (1979) The Mystery of Wealth; Political
economy Its development and Impact on the world
stage.
• Clark, D.A (2006)The Elga Companion to Development
studies. Elga: USA
• Deneulin,S. and Shahani, L (2009) An Introduction to
Human Development capability approach. Earthscan.
NY
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THANK YOU FOR LISTINING
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