NXP@ ISGF 18 Jan - India Smart Grid Forum

Report
Communication Systems for smart grid
systems
Ashok Chandak
Sr. Director , NXP Semiconductors
The Wireless Sensor Network Revolution
• Standards-based wireless systems become pervasive:• New standards catalyze market growth
Power
Global Standards
Inter-operatability
Platform approach
Future readyness
End to End Solution
Wi-Fi
(internet)
IEEE802.11x
3G
WSNs
(hundreds of applications)
UWB
(usb2 cable replacement)
Bluetooth
(short-range voice)
IEEE802.15.1
IEEE802.15.4
GPRS
NFC
250 kbps
Speed
1 Mbps
11-54 Mbps
200+ Mbps
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IEEE-802.15.4 RF Bands
Parameters
2.4 Ghz
Global ISM Band
Sub-Ghz
868 / 915 Mhz
General
comments
Availability
World-wide available
Fragmented
868 / 915 Mhz
In India National Frequency
Allocation report-2011 (under
review) reserves majority of
800-950 Mhz for Mobile /
Telcom sectors
(both are not available in India)
Data Rate
250 Kbps
20 / 40 Kbps
Channels
16
1 / 10
Range
Good
Better
Interference
Though WiFi / Bluetooth works
in same band, but standard has
built-In mechanisms to largely
reduce it.
Channels are less, and all
adjacent bands are blocked either
by mobile / broadband or telecom,
which may cause more serious
issues
Adoption
Globally
Not yet deployed
Smart Metering
Standard
ZigBee
available today
ZigBee
Work is ongoing
Country specific –
under consideration
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Markets
Lighting
– Street Lighting, better maintenance and lower C02/cost
– Commercial lighting, lower operating cost and C02
– Consumer lighting, improved control functionality
Smart Energy
– Domestic and industrial metering and load control
– Devices include Smart Meters, In-Premises Displays,
programmable thermostats, demand response and load controller
Consumer
– RF control means devices can be out of sight, e.g. media servers, set-top boxes
etc
– New features like 2-way communication for program guides, album art etc on
the remote control
Home and Building Automation
– Low cost wireless deployment of sensors for improved monitoring and control
– lower operating costs and CO2
– E.g. temperature, humidity, air-conditioning control etc
– Energy saving, load control and demand response
Asset Tagging
– Tracking of goods reduces errors and improves efficiency
– Long battery-life for tags
– Low-cost tag and reader implementations
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Open Platform Architecture
C/C++
Java JVM
NXP
Interprocessor
Communciation
Customer
Internet
/ Applications
Cloud centric Services
Customer
OSGI
Quasi
industry standard
IBM HW
Java JVM
abstraction
AOTP
Lib
(Option)
driver
Radio
Security
SMX
CAN
USB
USB
Standard
Ethernet
interfaces
ARM 7 / Cortex M3
incl. sRAM,Flash
Interface Micro
Low power MCU
Serial
family
2
I C, AD/DA
GPIO, UART,...
Application
Communication
Microprocessor
ARM9 / ARM11
GSM
pipe
RF
NFC interface
Memory
16 MB SRAM, 32MB flash
Transparent, robust
Inter-processor communication
Power Supply
NFC
Charging
GPS
/ Glonass
Hardware
security
SIM
Audio
NFC Antenna
Antenna
2nd Fallback Antenna
Aktive Antenna
Passive Antenna
Antenna Interfaces
Standard Hardware interfaces
Real Time
RTOS
Computing
Partner
Software
Customer’s
Applications
Multi Service
OEM CAN Stack
Real Time
Network Overview
IP Network
Mobile Network
GPRS / GSM
Smart Elec.
NXP particiption
ZigBee
Concentrator
Web Application
Data centers
Smart Elec.
Smart Elec.
• Bill entity
• Distribution network
• Law enforcement
• Added value services…
GE-PON
Network
Concentrator
Utility Backend
ZigBee
Smart Elec.
Smart Elec.
6
Data Collection Unit
(DCU)
Smart Meter Building Blocks
(with Connectivity modules)
Power Supply
Zigbee
(Jennic)
Authentication /
Contactless Reader
UART
Power Line
Communication
ISENSE
VSENSE
Metrology
Engine
GSM/GPRS
int. ADC
int.
Real Time
Clock
M-Bus
Memory
ISENSE
VSENSE
ext.
Analog
Front End
i2c /spi
int. LCD
Driver
Optional, if not integrated
Other NXP products
ext.
Real Time
Clock
Cap
sense
ext. LCD
Driver
Logic
Standard Products
Load
7
ZigBee Smart Energy Profile 1.x
Currently published standard is Smart Energy
1.1
– Based on ZigBee PRO
– Device List:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Energy Service portal (ESI)
Meter: Electricity, Water and Gas
In-Premise Display (IPD/IHD)
Load Control and Demand Response (LC&DR)
Programmable Communicating Thermostat
(PCT)
Smart Appliance
Range Extender
Prepayment Terminal
Established standard in the US ( 40 Mn+)
UK Smart Metering programme under
European Initiative 20/20/20.
MSEB, Reliance Energy, British Gas, etc...
8
LPRF ZigBee Smart Energy
ZigBee PRO Smart Energy 1.x Security
The Smart Energy Profile uses two levels of security
Network Layer Security
– Standard Security
• Pre-shared network key
– Network level encryption is achieved using a
common network key
• Link keys are supported
Application Layer Security
– Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC)
• Public key establishment – required only for SE profile
• Symmetric keys established with certificate-based public
key cryptography
ECC Libraries from Certicom are included in NXP’s
JN5148 tool chain
Application Profiles
Management Plane
– The application security layer prohibits nodes with
other profiles to join an SE network
Customer Application
ECC
Security
ZigBee Cluster
Library
Application Support Layer
ZigBee Network Layer
IEEE802.15.4 MAC
IEEE802.15.4 PHY
9
LPRF ZigBee Smart Energy
DIO14/I2CCLK/UART1TX/SPISSEL
DIO13/ADE/PWM3/SPISMISO
DIO12/ADO/PWM2/SPISMOSI
VB_DIG
DIO11/PWM1
DIO10/TIM0OUT/32KXTALOUT
DIO9/TIM0CAP/32KXTALIN/32KIN
34
33
32
DIO8/TIM0CK_GT/PC1
VSS2
35
31
30
DIO17/COMP1M/PWM4
2
29
DIO7/RXD0*/JTAGDTI
RESETN
3
28
DIO6/TXD0*/JTAGTDO
XTAL_OUT
4
27
DIO5/RTS0*/JTAGTMS
XTAL_IN
5
26
DIO4/CTS0*/JTAGTCK
VB_SYNTH
6
25
VB_RAM
VCOTUNE
7
24
SPISELO
VB_VCO
8
23
SPIMOSI
VDD1
9
22
SPIMISO
IBIAS
10
11
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
DIO2/RFRX
DIO3/RFTX
*Note: JTAG occupies UART0 pins in either position
21
20
VDD2
VSS1
SPICLK/POR
12
DIO1/SPISEL2/PC0/ADC4
VSSA
DIO0/SPISEL1/ADC3
0.5uA sleep timer,
1uA with sleep timer & RAM held
100nA deep sleep with interrupt wake up
36
ADC1
•
•
•
37
VB_RF1
– 16mA TX (2.5dBm), 17.5mA RX,
– Low sleep currents
38
RF_IN
Class leading operating current
39
1
VB_RF2
– JN5161/001: 64kB Flash, 8kB RAM, 4kB EEPROM
– JN5164/001: 160kB Flash, 32kB RAM, 4kB EEPROM
– JN5168/001: 256kB Flash, 32kB RAM, 4kB EEPROM
40
DIO16/SPISMOSI/COMP1P
VREF/ADC2
3 variants in QFN40 package
DIO15/I2CDATA/UART1RX/SPISCLK
Device example :
JN516x Functional Overview
+2.5dBm output power
– Just 16mA TX current
32-bit RISC CPU and radio as JN514x
–
–
–
Much higher code density than typical 80C51
Up to 32MIPS with programmable clock rate
98dB link budget
Extensive peripherals
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JN516x Key product features
In packet Antenna diversity
– Can choose best antenna on every packet
received
– TX diversity on retry also available
+2.5dBm output power
32-bit CPU for price of 8-bit
Time of Flight function for long distance ranging
Low power pulse counters for metering
applications
1 full timer and 4 additional PWM generators
IR pattern generator for IR remote control
functionality
Up to 20 DIO
4 input 10-bit ADC with DMA function up to 2k
samples
I2C Master/Slave
SPI Master/slave with 3 selects
Watchdog & POR
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ATOP- Open Platform Architecture
C/C++
Java JVM
NXP
AOTP
Lib
Security
SMX
UART
ARM 7 / Cortex M3
incl. sRAM,Flash
Ethernet
Interface Micro
Standard Hardware interfaces
IBM Java JVM
RTOS
2
I C, AD/DA
GPIO, UART,...
Power Supply
Application
Microprocessor
GSM/GPRS
Or
HSxPA
ARM9 / ARM11
Memory
SIM
NFC Antenna
Antenna
RF
GPS / Glonass
16/64 MB SRAM,
32/128MB flash
Charging
NFC
Audio
2nd Fallback Antenna
Aktive Antenna
Passive Antenna
Antenna Interfaces
USB
(Option)
OSGI
CAN
Serial
Partner
Customer Applications
Software
driver
Interprocessor
Communciation
Customer
Customer’s
Applications
Multi Service
OEM CAN Stack
Real Time
Load Control Device – Smart Plug
The Load Control and Demand Response device
supports following features:
-Remote device turn-off to protect the grid from
overload
- On/Off based on pricing information from the utility
- Load Control Opt-In / Opt-Out support
- Energy consumption measurement
The Load Control Device uses the following
Key Establishment
DR / Load Control
Price
Time
Clusters to implement an Smart Plug:
- Client & Server
- Client
- Client
- Client
13
LPRF ZigBee Smart Energy
Energy Monitoring Screen
Time Cluster to
synchronise time with meter
Battery Level Indicator
using JN5148 on-chip
battery monitor
Instant energy
consumption
and current tariff
Configuration Info
Consumption History
Power bar shows instant
energy consumption
Signal Strength
Indication
Mode button allows user to toggle
Between KwH, Price and CO2
Pricing Information
14
LPRF ZigBee Smart Energy
USB Dongle Designs
IEEE802.15.4 USB Dongle (JN-RD-6023)
–
–
–
–
–
JN5148 module with integrated RF Ceramic Antenna
USB 2.0 Full-Speed Compatible
Tx Power 1.5dBm, Rx Sensitivity -91dBm
Tx Current 31mA, Rx Current 32mA
Single LED, Serial Flash and 32KHz Crystal Oscillator
IEEE802.15.4 USB Expansion Board (JN-RD-6026)
– Accommodates JN5148 module range
– 2x general purpose switches and LEDs
– 2x 20way Expansion connector to access all
analogue and digital peripherals
– Options to fit 32KHz Clock / Crystal and
additional Flash
15
Low-Cost SE1.x IPD Reference Design
Standard Plastics and LCD
Custom PCB design
Daughter board
for antenna and
switches
Shows
– Display kW, Cost, Time,
Temperature
– kWh and CO2
(JN-RD-6028 - Low Cost IPD)
16
ZigBee SE 1.x Load Control and Nonbilling Metering
ZigBee Smart Plug Application Note:
EM773 Metrology S/W and H/W integrated to JN5148-EM
JN5148 Module replaced with JN5148-EM chip with 20dBm output
ZigBee
USB transceiver with LPC1343 and JN5148
SE1.x USB
Adapter
ZigBee SE1.x
Communication
17
RF4CE
Remote control board
– With example application
– Switches and display
USB dongle
– PC interface
Example application
– Full documentation
– Controls Windows Media
Player
Full unrestricted SDK
– RF4CE & Hardware peripheral
libraries
– SDK free of charge
18
Lighting Reference Designs
19
Thank You!
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08/11/2012
IEEE 802.15.4 – Key Characteristics
Networks based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard have the following
features:
– Low power consumption
– Low data rate
– Low complexity
– Low cost
– Short range radio communication
– Use of unlicensed radio bands
– Secure communications
– Large networks with 100s of nodes
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08/11/2012
Channels and Data Rates
IEEE 802.15.4 radio frequency bands:
– 868 MHz
– 915 MHz
– 2,400 MHz
Bands have different:
– data rates
– number of channels
– unlicensed geographical areas
Channels are numbered 0 - 26
Same numbering scheme is used
through the three bands
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