Gifted and Learning Disabled: What Can We Do? Dr. Agnes Meyo Cyrie Wilson Kelly Roth St. Louis Association for Gifted Education St. Louis, Mo Outline • Definition of Gifted with Learning Diabilities • Strategies for Intervention • Environment • Reading • Mathematics • Writing • Testing Definition of Gifted with Learning Disabilities (Twice-Exceptional) 1. Children who are identified as gifted and talented in one or more areas of exceptionality (specific academics, general intellectual ability, creativity, leadership, visual, spacial, or performing arts). and also identified with: 2. A disability defined by Federal/State eligibility criteria: Reading, math, written expression, and/or oral language disorders, significant identifiable emotional disability, physical disabilities, sensory disabilies, autism, or ADHD. Learning Disorders • Reading Disorder Reading achievement, as measured by individually administered standardized tests of reading accuracy or comprehension, is substantially below that expected given the person’s chronological age, measured intelligence, and age-appropriate education. Learning Disorders (2) • Mathematics Disorder Mathematical ability, as measured by individually standardized tests, is substantially below that expected given the person’s chronological age, measured intelligence, and age appropriate education. Learning Disorders (3) • Disorder of Written Expression Writing skills, as measured by individually administered standardized tests, is substantially below that expected given the person’s chronological age, measured intelligence, and age appropriate education. Learning Disorders (4) • Learning Disorder, Not Otherwise Specified This category is for disorders in learning that do not meet criteria for any specific learning disorder. Strategies for Intervention: Environment for Learning 1. Awareness of individual strengths and weaknesses 2. High, yet flexible standards and structure 3. Promotion of learning from mistakes 4. Appreciation of self-advocacy 5. Praise and encouragement 6. Use of assistive technology Strategies for Intervention Environment for Learning (2) 7. Extended time for tests 8. Extended deadlines for assignments 9. Individualized curriculum 10.Pre-testing and post-testing 11.Curriculum compacting 12.Use of mnemonics 13.Multimedia resources Strategies for Intervention Environment for Learning (3) 14. Personal choice regarding assignment topics whenever possible 15. Instruction for active listening 16. Preferential seating and freedom of movement 17. Alternative projects or testing for the demonstration of mastery (e.g., oral testing versus written) Strategies for Intervention: Reading 1. Determination of goals for instruction: amelioration or accommodation 2. When seeking amelioration with younger children, use of a structured reading program (e.g., Wilson, Barton, Reading Reflex) 3. When seeking accommodation with older children, use of methods that minimize reading (e.g., texts of tape/CD, hands-on) Strategies for Intervention: Reading (2) 4. Clearly defined goals for progress 5. Rewards for effort and practice 6. Personal choice for reading material 7. Multiple sensory approaches for instruction (e.g., textured letters, songs) 8. Only one-on-one reading aloud 9. Incorporation of demonstrations Strategies for Intervention: Reading (3) 10. Computer graphics, maps, and illustrations for emphasizing content 11. Chunking of reading material into smaller amounts with breaks between 12. Oral explanations to ensure comprehension of abstract concepts Strategies for Intervention: Mathematics 1. Assessment of difficulties: conceptual or computational 2. With conceptual problems… • provision of mathematical rational and reasoning • Hands-on, visual, and manipulative devices to demonstrate concepts • Computer graphics and programs that illustrate numerical properties Strategies for Intervention: Mathematics (2) 3. With computational problems… • Provision of alternative methods for determining answers • Instruction and practice regarding use of calculators and mathematical technology • Counting knuckles for recalling multiplication facts • Nine and Eight tricks for addition and subtraction. Strategies for Intervention: Mathematics (3) • Song for enhancing to recall and math facts • Mnemonics for remembering the order of operations and formulas • Symbols adjustments to prevent confusion of plus/minus signs • Graph paper to align/organize problems • Conceptual applications of computational problems (e.g.,rounding up/down) • Rules (e.g., fractions cannot have wheels) Strategies for Intervention: Writing 1. Assessment of difficulties: muscular strength/control, spacing, graphomotor, “concrete thinking”, sequencing, sentence structure, spelling, capitalization, punctuation, letter reversals and transposals 2. With muscular problems… • Occupational therapy strategies, such as pencil grips and voice recognition programs • Teacher notes (instead of note-taking) Strategies for Intervention: Writing (2) 3. With sequencing, grahomotor, “concrete thinking”, and/or sentence structure problems… • Computer graphic organizers and programs that illustrate concepts • Templates, mind-mapping methods, and writing prompts for organizing thoughts • One-on-one review sessions with teachers (prior to writing) for clarifying expectations for grading and organizing thoughts Strategies for Intervention: Writing (3) • Personal choice for writing assignments 3. With capitalization, spelling, punctuation, and letter reversals/transposal errors… • Use of computer highlighters to indicate mistakes and options for corrections Strategies for Intervention: Testing 1. Multiple options for assessing mastery or “testing”: projects, oral presentations, teaching others, papers, artwork, plays, written tests, Power Point presentations 2. Choices regarding test methods 3. Determination of the optimal time for testing during the day 4. Clearly defined expectations for testing and grading (e.g., review sheets, pre-testing) Strategies for Intervention: Testing (2) 5. Options for correcting mistakes to obtain a higher grade 6. Quiet testing environment and/or earplugs 7. Access to oral reading of test questions and/or oral expressions of answers 8. Extra credit options 9. Breaks during long testing sessions 10. Computer for recording answers to test items Strategies for Intervention: Testing (3) 11.Freedom of movement during testing 12.Unlimited time for test completion 13.Credit for written work that contains misspellings, punctuation mistakes, and grammatical errors if the content is accurate 14. Separate grading for progress and effort 15. Access to tests that can be written on and handed in to prevent errors from recopying References American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-fourth edition. Washington, DC: Author. Baum, S. (2008). Bumps along the road. In M.A. Gosfield (Ed.), Expert approaches to support gifted learners (199-204). Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit. Meckstroth, E. (2007). Abnormally brilliant, brilliantly normal. In K. Kay, D. Robson, & J.F. Brenneman (Eds.), High IQ kids: Collected Insights, information, and personal stories from the experts (311-343). Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit. Neville, C.S. (2007). Of importance, meaning, and success: Application for highly and profoundly gifted students. . In K. Kay, D. Robson, & J.F. Brenneman (Eds.), High IQ kids: Collected Insights, information, and personal stories from the experts (161-178). Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit. References (2) Quart, A. (2006). Hothouse kids: The dilemma of the gifted child. New York, NY: Penguin. Renzulli, S. (2008). The irony of “twice exceptional.” In K. Kay, D. Robson, & J.F. Brenneman (Eds.), High IQ kids: Collected Insights, information, and personal stories from the experts (205-208). Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit. Renzulli, S.(2008). The irony of “twice-exceptional.” . In M.A. Gosfield (Ed.), Expert approaches to support gifted learners (205-208). Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit. Rimm, S. , Gilman, B. and Silverman, L. (2008). Nontraditional applications of traditional testing. In J. VanTassel-Baska (Ed.), Alternative assessments with gifted and talented students (175202). Waco, TX: Prufrock. References (3) Shaywitz, S. (2003). Overcoming Dyslexia, New York, NY: Vintage Books. Silverman, L.K. (2008). The power of images: Visual-spatial learners. In M.A. Gosfield (Ed.), Expert approaches to support gifted learners (218-233). Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit. Schultz, R. & Delisle, J. (2007). More than a test score: Teens talk about being gifted, talented, and otherwise extra-ordinary. Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit. Webb, J., Amend, E., Webb, N., Goerss, J., Beljan, & Olenchek, R. (2005). Misdiagnosis and dual diagnosis of gifted children and adults. Scottsdale, AZ: Great Potential Press.