First Five

Report
 Answer these two questions:
 1. Why would Washington warn against political
parties and entangling alliances? Think about the
possible dangers of each.
 2. If you were back in the 1790s, which party would you
be for; the Federalists or the Republicans? Why? Think
about which philosophies you agree with.
 John Adams (Federalist) vs Thomas Jefferson (Democratic-
Republican)
 Federalist
 From Massachusetts
 Lawyer—Harvard
 Vice President under
Washington
 President 1796-1800
• French angry over Jay’s Treaty
• French continued to seize ships
• Sent 3 delegates over to Paris to negotiate
• Delegates were to meet with French foreign minister
Talleyrand Instead met with three low level
officials (XYZ)
• XYZ tried to force American officials to pay $250,000
• American’s outraged with French
• US began to build a navy seize French ships
 Anti-French sentiment continues Americans think
French agents are everywhere.
 This leads to the passage of the Alien and Sedition
Acts
Alien Acts
Sedition Acts
 Raised Residence
 Government could jail
requirement to become a
citizen from 5 years to 14
years
 President could deport
or jail any alien
considered undesirable
and fine anyone who
expresses “false,
scandalous, and
malicious statements
against the government.”
 Write down on your index card:
 Do you think the Alien and Sedition Acts were
constitutional? Why or why not?
 Think about what they prohibit
 What amendment or right does this possibly break?
 Jefferson and Madison strongly disagreed with the
Alien and Sedition Acts
 Passed resolutions that were approved in KY and VA
 Stated that the Acts should be nullified
 VA and KY stated that they had the right to declare
null and void federal laws that broke the Constitution
 Thomas Jefferson-
 John Adams-Federalist
DemocraticRepublican
 Supported by poor
farmers
 Favored Popular
Democracy & States’
Rights
 Supported by wealthy
 Supported strong Fed
Gov’t
 From Virginia




Monticello
Anti-Federalist
Main Author of the
Declaration of
Independence
Vice President under
Adams
Third President of the
United States
 Adams passes the Judiciary Act of 1801: increases
Supreme Court Judges to 16
 Adams fills these positions the night before he leaves
office “midnight judges”
 Marbury was one
 Jefferson states that since the papers had not been
delivered the appointments were invalid
 Marbury sued Sec of State Madison for not following
the Judiciary Act
 Chief Justice Marshall declares the Judiciary Act is
Unconstitutional
 Establishes the Power of Judicial Review
 The ability of the Supreme Court to declare an act of
Congress unconstitutional
 Constitutional: are those laws consistent with what it
says in the Constitution
 Establishment of Judicial Review expands the Supreme
Court’s power and the federal government’s power
Election of 1800
 Thomas
JeffersonDemocraticRepublican
 Supported by poor
farmers
 Favored Popular
Democracy &
States’ Rights
 John
AdamsFederalist
 Supported by
wealthy
 Supported strong
Fed Gov’t
Thomas Jefferson





From Virginia
Monticello
Anti-Federalist
Main Author of the
Declaration of
Independence
Vice President under
Adams
Third President of the
United States
Marbury vs Madison
 Adams
passes the Judiciary Act of 1801:
increases Supreme Court Judges to 16
 Adams fills these positions the night before
he leaves office “midnight judges”
 Marbury was one
 Jefferson states that since the papers had
not been delivered the appointments
were invalid
Marbury vs. Madison
 Marbury
sued Sec of State Madison for
not following the Judiciary Act
 Chief Justice Marshall declares the
Judiciary Act is Unconstitutional
 Establishes the Power of Judicial Review
Judicial Review
 The
ability of the Supreme Court to
declare an act of Congress
unconstitutional
 Constitutional: are those laws consistent
with what it says in the Constitution
 Establishment of Judicial Review expands
the Supreme Court’s power and the
federal government’s power
Marshall Court
 McCulloch
vs Maryland
 Issue: Do states have the right to tax a
federal agency?
 Decision:



No, states cannot tax a federal agency
Rule Bank of US constitutional
Strengthens federal power
Marshall Court
 Gibbons
vs Ogden
 Issue: Whether the New York law that
prohibited vessels (ships) licensed by the
US from navigating the waters of New
York was unconstitutional and therefore
void.
 Decision:

Only Congress has the power to regulate
interstate trade
Louisiana Purchase
Louisiana Purchase
 Bought
in 1803
from France
 Doubles the land
in the US
 Expands
presidential
power
Lewis and Clark
 Sent
to explore the new territory
 Take down information and data on land,
plants and animals
Embargo of 1807
 Britain
is blockading France by sea to hurt
trade  seize 1,000 American Ships
 Impress American Sailors (kidnap and
force American sailors to fight in British
Navy)
 Jefferson declares an embargo ban on
exporting goods to other countries
 Goal: to hurt Britain and other European
powers economically
 Result: Hurts Americans more
 Embargo lifted in 1809

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