The Story of Human Evolution Part 1: From ape-like ancestors to modern humans Part 2: What makes us human? Evolution and adaptation in modern humans How do scientists study human evolution? Humans evolved from THEORY ape-like creatures Humans and apes share many Observation biological features Humans and apes HYPOTHESIS have a common ancestor 1. Measure Gather DNA evidence, differences between test with humans and apes. experiments 2. Examine fossils from several million years ago. 2. should 1.There Humans and be apes fossils with human should share a high Prediction and ape-likeof features percentage DNA Old-World monkeys Gibbon Orangutan Gorilla Chimpanzee Human 0 Monkey Chimp Human 10 20 30 Time (million yrs ago) Allan Wilson 1934 - 1991 DNA and proteins can be used to study genetic similarities between species Molecular differences show that humans diverged from chimpanzees 5-6 million years ago 0 Monkey Chimp Human 10 20 30 Time (million yrs ago) Allan Wilson 1934 - 1991 10 20 30 Human – monkey difference Time (million yrs ago) 0 10 20 30 Albumin protein Sequence difference Chimp Human Monkey Human – chimp difference Chimp Human Sequence difference 0 Monkey Our earliest ancestors lived in Africa Lucy is one of the most important hominid fossils ever discovered Hadar, Ethiopia – site of Lucy’s discovery Australopithecus - an ape who walked on two legs Footprints left by Australopithecus confirm early upright walking The earliest stone tools are from 2.3-2.5 million years ago Homo habilis was the first to use stone tools Early humans were using fire and sophisticated tools 1.8 million years ago. Homo erectus was the first to migrate out of Africa When and where did modern humans evolve? Modern humans Europe Africa Homo erectus Africa Asia Modern humans Europe Africa Homo erectus Africa Asia Mitochondria Nucleus Mitochondria: DNA comes from mother Nucleus: DNA comes from both parents Offspring cell Mitochondrial DNA traces the female line We are all descended from a small population living in Africa 150,000 to 200,000 years ago Modern humans colonize the globe 4500 15,000 25,000 40,000 12,000 100,000 70,000 3000 200,000 1500 50,000 Homo sapiens Neanderthals Early hominids 800 © Produced by Hilary Miller in association with the Allan Wilson Centre for Molecular Ecology and Evolution Thanks to Azra Moeed, Caroline Thomas, and Glenda Lewis for assistance with preparing this presentation [email protected] http://www.allanwilsoncentre.ac.nz Image credits Slides 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7: TRANZ INTERNATIONAL Image Library Ltd. Slide 8: Wikimedia Commons Slide 11: Science Photo Library Slide 12: Univ. of California Museum of Paleontology (http://evolution.berkeley.edu) Slide 13, 14, 15: TRANZ INTERNATIONAL Image Library Ltd. Slide 16: Science Photo Library Slide 17: TRANZ INTERNATIONAL Image Library Ltd. Slide 18, 19, 20, 21: Science Photo Library Slide 24: Wikimedia Commons Slide 25: Univ. of California Museum of Paleontology (http://evolution.berkeley.edu) Slide 27: Science Photo Library Slide 28: Wikimedia Commons (edited) Slides 29, 30: TRANZ INTERNATIONAL Image Library Ltd.