The story of human evolution

Report
The Story of Human Evolution
Part 1: From ape-like ancestors to modern
humans
Part 2: What makes us human? Evolution and
adaptation in modern humans
How do scientists study human
evolution?
Humans evolved from
THEORY
ape-like
creatures
Humans and apes
share
many
Observation
biological features
Humans and apes
HYPOTHESIS
have
a common
ancestor
1. Measure
Gather DNA
evidence,
differences
between
test with
humans and apes.
experiments
2. Examine fossils from
several million years ago.
2.
should
1.There
Humans
and be
apes
fossils
with
human
should
share
a high
Prediction
and
ape-likeof
features
percentage
DNA
Old-World monkeys Gibbon
Orangutan
Gorilla
Chimpanzee
Human
0
Monkey
Chimp
Human
10
20
30
Time
(million yrs ago)
Allan Wilson 1934 - 1991
DNA and proteins can
be used to study
genetic similarities
between species
Molecular differences show that humans
diverged from chimpanzees 5-6 million years ago
0
Monkey
Chimp
Human
10
20
30
Time
(million yrs ago)
Allan Wilson 1934 - 1991
10
20
30
Human – monkey difference
Time
(million yrs ago)
0
10
20
30
Albumin protein
Sequence difference
Chimp Human
Monkey
Human – chimp difference
Chimp Human
Sequence difference
0
Monkey
Our earliest ancestors lived in Africa
Lucy is one of the most important
hominid fossils ever discovered
Hadar, Ethiopia – site of Lucy’s discovery
Australopithecus
- an ape who
walked on two
legs
Footprints left by
Australopithecus
confirm early upright
walking
The earliest stone tools are from 2.3-2.5
million years ago
Homo habilis was the first to use stone tools
Early humans were
using fire and
sophisticated tools
1.8 million years
ago.
Homo erectus was the first
to migrate out of Africa
When and where did modern humans
evolve?
Modern humans
Europe
Africa
Homo erectus
Africa
Asia
Modern humans
Europe
Africa
Homo erectus
Africa
Asia
Mitochondria
Nucleus
Mitochondria:
DNA comes
from mother
Nucleus: DNA
comes from
both parents
Offspring cell
Mitochondrial DNA traces the female line
We are all descended from a small population
living in Africa 150,000 to 200,000 years ago
Modern humans colonize the globe
4500
15,000
25,000
40,000
12,000
100,000
70,000
3000
200,000
1500
50,000
Homo sapiens
Neanderthals
Early hominids
800
© Produced by Hilary Miller in association
with the Allan Wilson Centre for Molecular
Ecology and Evolution
Thanks to Azra Moeed, Caroline Thomas, and
Glenda Lewis for assistance with preparing
this presentation
[email protected]
http://www.allanwilsoncentre.ac.nz
Image credits
Slides 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7: TRANZ INTERNATIONAL Image Library Ltd.
Slide 8: Wikimedia Commons
Slide 11: Science Photo Library
Slide 12: Univ. of California Museum of Paleontology (http://evolution.berkeley.edu)
Slide 13, 14, 15: TRANZ INTERNATIONAL Image Library Ltd.
Slide 16: Science Photo Library
Slide 17: TRANZ INTERNATIONAL Image Library Ltd.
Slide 18, 19, 20, 21: Science Photo Library
Slide 24: Wikimedia Commons
Slide 25: Univ. of California Museum of Paleontology (http://evolution.berkeley.edu)
Slide 27: Science Photo Library
Slide 28: Wikimedia Commons (edited)
Slides 29, 30: TRANZ INTERNATIONAL Image Library Ltd.

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