Link Here - Kentucky Economic Association

Report
Nine Economic Regions of Kentucky
provocative facts, policy challenges for future
Kentucky Economics Association
October 2014
Paul Coomes, Ph.D.
Emeritus Professor of Economics
University of Louisville
What was Kentucky’s 1958
rank among states in terms
of earned per capita
income?
 32nd
 38th
 46th

 50th
Kentucky’s rank among 50 states
Personal income minus transfer payments, per capita
1958:
th
46
2013:
th
46
Thank goodness for West Virginia, Mississippi, South
Carolina, and Arkansas.
Relative Prosperity
Earned Income per Capita, Kentucky vs. US
0.84
43rd rank
0.82
0.80
0.78
0.76
0.74
46th rank
among 50
states
46th rank
47th rank
0.72
0.70
0.68
0.66
Source: US Bureau of Economic Analysis; calculated by subtracting transfer payments from total personal income, then
dividing by population. Chart shows the ratio of Kentucky to United States. For example, in 2013, Kentucky had$27,800 in
earned income per capita vs. $36,800 in the US overall. So, the ratio is 0.75. Kentucky ranked 46th among states, ahead
of Mississippi, West Virginia, Arkansas and South Carolina.
0.64
0.62
1958
1963
1968
1973
1978
1983
1988
1993
1998
2003
2008
2013
Regional Economic Development in Kentucky
Where are we? Where have we been? Where are we going?
Talking about the per capita income of Kentuckians is like talking
about the average elevation of Colorado. It is the variation
around the average that is interesting.
The State of Kentucky is not an economy in any meaningful
sense – not a labor market, not a housing market, not a retail
market, not a media market. States, counties, municipalities are
political and administrative entities.
While a county is closer than a state to a market boundary,
most markets encompass many counties. Consider
television market areas (the ABC, CBS, NBC network
broadcast territories).
Television Market Boundaries
KY is somewhere in
here. TV stations
don’t care.
The maps linked below were retrieved from the U.S. Census Bureau web site (http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/) and altered to show TV
markets by county. The TV Market information was derived from pictures once available on the now defunct www.echostarmerger.com,
select TV station web sites and other sources on the web. At no time was the Nielsen Media Research Co. web site nor any other material
directly attached to same ever consulted The TV Market borders change slightly every September. The most if not all the maps linked below
are current as of the 2006-2007 season. The map above is derived from information retrieved in the 2002-2003 season and is there for
historical purposes. If you have any questions, comments or corrections, please e-mail me at [email protected]
10 Television Market
Boundaries around Kentucky
all except Lexington and Bowling Green stations are multi-state
Bowling Green: CBS broadcast
is from WTVF in Nashville TN
http://dishuser.org/TVMarkets/Maps/kentucky.gif
9 Available on Dish Network: Bristol (TN/VA) Cincinnati (OH),
Charleston/Huntington (WV), Evansville (IN), Knoxville (TN), Lexington, Louisville,
Nashville (TN), Paducah 1 Not Available on Dish Network: Bowling Green
Somerset: cable provides
WBIR-NBC from Knoxville TN
A Google Map View
Stylized economic regions
based on major cities, TV
markets, and terrain.
LouisvilleElizabethtownSouthern
Indiana
CincinnatiNorthern
Kentucky
Lexington
AshlandHuntingtonCharleston
EvansvilleOwensboroHenderson
Mountain
PaducahPurchase
Bowling GreenHopkinsvilleNashville
SomersetCumberlandKnoxville
Developing Useful Economic Development Geographies
Detailed County Assignments to Nine Regions
Thankfully, the Census Bureau gives us a good start by defining metropolitan,
micropolitan, and combined statistical areas based on employment interchanges
between counties.
For example, the
Frankfort, Mt. Sterling,
and Richmond
micropolitan areas are
part of the Lexington
Consolidated Statistical
Area. Using these
definitions, we can
assign 48 of Kentucky’s
120 counties to one of
the nine economic
regions.
The hard part is looking at counties at the margins of the major market areas, and
assigning them to one economic region. I look at television markets and commuting
patterns from the Census Bureau’s American Community Survey 2006-2010.
For example, where to assign Danville and its two micropolitan counties – Boyle
and Lincoln?
Both counties receive television from the Lexington market.
Top external destinations for work of Boyle + Lincoln residents:
Mercer (1,056 + 372) = 1,428
Fayette (811 + 429) = 1,240
Jessamine (368 + 457) = 825
Pulaski ( 54 + 517) = 571
Garrard (257 + 250) = 507
Franklin (187 + 155) = 342
Mercer, the top destination, and Garrard are also served by the Lexington
TV market. Fayette, Jessamine and Franklin are in the Lexington CSA. So,
assign Boyle, Lincoln, Mercer and Garrard to the Lexington region.
Note there is a pull towards Pulaski County from Lincoln County. So,
assignment is not perfect.
Cincinnati
Louisville
New York
Destin
Naples
Which of the nine regions is
the most densely
populated?
 Louisville
 Northern Kentucky

 Mountain
 Lexington
Density: Population per Square Mile, 2012
250
232.7
218.5
200
150
Northern Kentucky and Louisville regions three times more
dense than five most sparse regions: economies of scale in
cost of delivering public services (e.g., schools, safety, roads,
health care).
134.3
110.3
100
80.4
50
0
73.3
69.2
68.4
68.3
58.3
Top three
counties over 30
times more
dense than
sparsest
counties.
Population Density by County, Top 20 and Bottom 20
Jefferson
Fayette
Kenton
Campbell
Boone
Oldham
Boyd
Jessamine
McCracken
Bullitt
Franklin
Warren
Daviess
Madison
Scott
Hardin
Boyle
Clark
Montgomery
Laurel
1,966.1
1,083.9
1,003.7
599.6
505.2
329.6
305.1
290.1
260.5
256.8
235.9
217.1
212.3
194.3
175.1
172.2
159.9
140.0
137.3
136.8
Todd
Elliott
Wolfe
Monroe
Trigg
Menifee
Fulton
Owen
Butler
Livingston
Lewis
Breathitt
Leslie
Carlisle
Crittenden
Owsley
Robertson
Cumberland
Hickman
33.2
32.6
32.5
32.3
32.2
30.8
30.6
30.3
29.9
29.6
28.5
27.3
27.3
26.0
25.6
23.5
22.4
22.2
19.4
0
500
1,000
1,500
2,000
2,500
Which of the nine regions
has the least population
growth this decade?
 Mountain

 Cumberland
 Paducah - Purchase
 Louisville
This decade so far
Total Population Change, 2010 to 2013
Source: US Census Bureau
Louisville
28,120
Lexington
21,030
Northern Kentucky
9,246
Bowling Green-Hopkinsville
6,337
Owensboro-Henderson
1,136
Cumberland
843
declining population at tails of state
Paducah-Purchase
-15,000
-10,000
-428
Ashland
-1,846
Mountain
-8,500
-5,000
0
Kentucky as a whole
gained
56,000 persons
5,000
10,000
15,000
20,000
25,000
30,000
This decade so far
Percent Population Change, 2010 to 2013
Source: US Census Bureau
Lexington
2.3%
Louisville
2.2%
Northern Kentucky
2.0%
Bowling Green-Hopkinsville
1.6%
Owensboro-Henderson
0.4%
Cumberland
0.3%
Kentucky State Total: 1.3%
Paducah-Purchase
-0.2%
-1.2% Ashland
-2.5%
-3.0%
-2.0%
-1.0%
Mountain
0.0%
1.0%
2.0%
3.0%
This decade so far
Natural Population Increase, 2010 to 2013, Births minus Deaths
Source: US Census Bureau
Louisville
16,415
Lexington
10,887
Northern Kentucky
8,384
Bowling Green-Hopkinsville
5,626
Cumberland
1,321
Owensboro-Henderson
1,285
Ashland
-73
Paducah-Purchase
-754
Mountain
-808
-2,000
Kentucky State Totals:
179,000 births
137,000 deaths
net gain of 42,000 persons
more deaths than births
0
2,000
4,000
6,000
8,000
10,000
12,000
14,000
16,000
18,000
Population of Regions, 1969 and 2013
1,400,000
Growth 1969 to 2013
1,200,000
311,575
1969
Source: US Census Bureau
1,000,000
800,000
379,293
600,000
Mountain region was third
most populated; now is fifth,
and heading towards
seventh.
Regions contain 28 counties,
with combined population less
than that of Jefferson County
991,333
400,000
158,097
131,213
7,267
539,488
200,000
0
49,130
109,633
35,438
324,982
308,477
273,042
243,900
15,649
194,843
187,678
134,257
Population of Regions East of I-75, Four Decades
450,000
Peak: 408,000 in 1983
400,000
Net loss of 76,000 since 1983
350,000
Mountain
300,000
250,000
200,000
150,000
100,000
50,000
0
1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Source: US Census Bureau
Population of Regions East of I-75, Four Decades
450,000
400,000
Net loss of 76,000 since 1983
350,000
Mountain
300,000
Cumberland
Net gain of 49,000 since 1983
250,000
200,000
150,000
Ashland
100,000
50,000
0
1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Source: US Census Bureau
Which region has the
highest income from
farming?
 Owensboro-Henderson
 Bowling Green - Hopkinsville
 Cumberland
 Lexington

Average Annual Farm Income, 2003-2012, by Economic Region
$300,000,000
Equine…
Grain, poultry, livestock
$255,523,100
$242,299,000$239,723,000
$250,000,000
Source: US Bureau of Economic Analysis;
includes wages, salaries and farm proprietors'
income.
$200,756,100
$200,000,000
$150,000,000
$100,000,000
$80,180,100
$50,000,000
$22,089,700
$5,642,600
$0
-$3,718,200
-$50,000,000
-$9,913,400
Which region has the
highest income from
mining?
 Owensboro-Henderson
 Paducah - Purchase
 Mountain

 Lexington
Earnings from Mining Industries, 2012, by Economic Region
$1,400,000,000
Source: US Bureau of Economic Analysis; includes wages, salaries
and proprietors' income. Some county-level estimates imputed by
author; $138 million could not be assigned to any county.
$1,253,119,000
Mountain and
Owensboro-Henderson
regions ($1.7 billion)
account for 75% of
Kentucky total
$1,200,000,000
$1,000,000,000
$800,000,000
$600,000,000
$400,000,000
$398,868,000
$201,759,000
$200,000,000
$68,542,000 $58,235,000
$39,632,000 $33,143,000 $29,334,000
$0
$3,858,000
Which region has the
highest income from
manufacturing?
 Louisville

 Ashland
 Lexington
 Northern Kentucky
Earnings from Manufacturing Industries, 2012, by Economic Region
$6,000,000,000
Louisville and Lexington
regions ($9 billion)
account for 58% of
Kentucky total
$5,421,629,000
$5,000,000,000
$4,000,000,000
Source: US Bureau of Economic Analysis;
includes wages, salaries and proprietors'
income.
$3,622,803,000
$3,000,000,000
$2,000,000,000
$1,683,255,000$1,629,833,000
$1,275,473,000
$1,000,000,000
$817,746,000
$669,310,000
$378,213,000
$125,637,000
$0
Earnings from Distribution Industries, 2012, by Economic Region
$3,000,000,000
Source: US Bureau of Economic Analysis; includes wages, salaries and proprietors' income.
Distribution includes alls transportation and warehousing industries. Estimates imputed for
some counties by author; about $660 million could not be assigned to any county.
$2,547,205,000
$2,500,000,000
Louisville accounts for 44%
of state total.
Louisville, NKy, Lexington
regions combined account
for 66% of Kentucky total
$2,000,000,000
$1,500,000,000
$1,000,000,000
$731,517,000
$582,648,000
$500,000,000
$367,043,000
$222,557,000 $203,341,000 $184,580,000 $174,393,000
$150,239,000
$0
Earnings from Office Industries, 2012, by Economic Region
$3,000,000,000
Source: US Bureau of Economic Analysis; includes wages, salaries and proprietors'
income. Distribution includes all professional, scientific, and technical service
industries. About $275 million could not be assigned to any county.
$2,643,889,000
$2,500,000,000
Louisville region accounts for
46% of state total.
$2,000,000,000
$1,500,000,000
$1,358,505,000
Louisville, Lexington, Nky
regions combined account for
79% of Kentucky total
$1,000,000,000
$559,664,000
$500,000,000
$283,357,000
$162,867,000 $161,675,000 $124,528,000 $122,822,000
$105,255,000
$0
Which region has had the
strongest job growth since
the bottom of the 2008-09
recession?
 Lexington

 Bowling Green - Hopkinsville
 Paducah - Purchase
 Ashland
Employment Growth Since Bottom of Last Recession
All Industries, and Manufacturing
25%
Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics, Quarterly Census of
Employment and Wages, compiled from county details.
Growth is from July 2009 to December 2013.
All Industries
Manufacturing
22.3%
20%
15%
13.1%
12.7%
12.6%
11.3%
11.1%
9.9%
10%
8.5%
8.5%
6.6%
6.4%
5%
12.6%
8.0%
7.3%
6.7%
4.8%
3.4%
3.4%
0.7%
0%
-5%
-5.3%
-10%
-15%
-8.5%
3.6%
Wage and Salary Growth Since Bottom of Last Recession
All Industries, and Manufacturing
50%
All Industries
Manufacturing
Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics, Quarterly Census
of Employment and Wages, compiled from county
details. Growth is from 2009 II to 2013 IV.
39.8%
40%
33.7%
33.6%
30.0%
28.3%
30%
27.1%
25.0%
23.7%
23.6%
20%
17.3%
17.0%
18.8%
17.7%
20.2%
20.1%
16.8%
14.8%
8.5%
10%
9.7%
5.8%
0%
2.3%
-10%
-20%
-9.7%
Which region has had the
highest ratio of employed
persons to population?
 Lexington
 Bowling Green - Hopkinsville
 Northern Kentucky

 Louisville
Employment Rate, by Region
Northern Kentucky
62.4%
Louisville
58.6%
Lexington
urban,
dense
57.8%
Bowling Green Hopkinsville
54.8%
Owensboro-Henderson
53.1%
Paducah - Purchase
52.3%
Ashland
44.8%
Cumberland
44.1%
Mountains
38.6%
rural,
sparse
Source: US Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2008-12;
Employed Civilians plus Armed Forces, divided by Population aged 16+.
Kentucky
54.7%
United States
58.7%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
Employment Rate by County: Top 10, Bottom 10
Boone
67.0%
Spencer
64.3%
Fayette
64.0%
Scott
63.4%
Anderson
62.8%
Kenton
62.8%
Woodford
62.7%
Campbell
62.7%
Jessamine
61.4%
Bullitt
61.1%
Lee
36.4%
Harlan
36.2%
Leslie
34.5%
Magoffin
33.4%
McCreary
32.7%
Elliott
31.8%
Wolfe
31.6%
Owsley
29.9%
Clay
28.2%
Martin
Less than
one-third
employed
Source: US Census Bureau,
American Community
Survey, 2008-12; Employed
Civilians plus Armed Forces,
divided by Population aged
16+.
26.9%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
Which region accounts for
the largest share of private
industry payrolls in
Kentucky?
 Louisville

 Bowling Green - Hopkinsville
 Lexington
 Northern Kentucky
Share of Private Industry Earnings in Kentucky, 2012
2.7%
4.3%
Cumberland
4.9%
Ashland
Paducah-Purchase
5.0%
Mountain
38.0%
6.1%
Owensboro-Henderson
Louisville
Bowling Green-Hopkinsville
7.6%
70% of private payrolls in
Kentucky from three of the
nine regions: your tax base.
Northern KY
Lexington
11.4%
20.1%
Earned Income per Capita, 2012, by Region
Louisville
$32,710
Northern Kentucky
$32,490
Lexington
urban,
dense
$27,930
Paducah-Purchase
$25,998
Owensboro-Henderson
$25,533
Bowling Green-Hopkinsville
$24,011
Ashland
$21,201
Mountain
$17,615
Cumberland
$17,417
rural,
sparse
Source: US Bureau of Economic Analysis; includes wages,
salaries, proprietors' income, property income.
Kentucky
$27,453
United States
$36,223
$0
$5,000
$10,000
$15,000
$20,000
$25,000
$30,000
$35,000
$40,000
Top Ten Counties in Terms of Private Industry Labor and
Proprietors' Earnings, 2012
Share of
All
Earnings
Share of
in
Private Earnings
State
County
Louisville
Jefferson
$26,501,818,000
30.8%
88.4%
Lexington
Fayette
$8,771,357,000
10.2%
75.6%
Florence
Boone
$4,197,889,000
4.9%
91.0%
Covington
Kenton
$3,567,815,000
4.2%
82.8%
Bowling Green
Warren
$2,518,242,000
2.9%
81.8%
Paducah McCracken
$1,920,737,000
2.2%
87.2%
Owensboro
Daviess
$1,808,665,000
2.1%
76.1%
Elizabethtown
Hardin
$1,674,054,000
1.9%
46.9%
Ashland
Boyd
$1,481,972,000
1.7%
88.2%
Georgetown
Scott
$1,387,776,000
1.6%
91.6%
rest of state
$32,076,812,000
37.3%
71.4%
Kentucky, total
$85,907,137,000
100.0%
78.2%
Source: US Bureau of Economic Analysis
Four counties account for
one-half of Kentucky total
private sector income
Note: all top counties are
urban, except Scott (Toyota)
Which of the nine regions
has the highest government
payroll per capita?
 Lexington
 Bowling Green - Hopkinsville

 Louisville
 Mountain
Government Payrolls per Capita, 2012, by Economic Region
$12,000
$10,000
$8,000
$6,000
$11,291
Source: US Bureau of Economic Analysis.
Fort Campbell
Frankfort
$5,999
Fort Knox
$5,004
$4,106
$4,000
$2,000
$0
$4,000
$3,890
$3,267
$3,096
$2,880
Top Twenty Counties in Terms of Government's Share of
Total Labor and Proprietors' Earnings, 2012
In twelve counties, over 40%
of earnings from
government employment.
Two counties – Christian and
Hardin – dominated by
military.
Franklin is home state
government.
Lyon County: KY State
Penitentiary at Eddyville.
Other eight are all in eastern
Kentucky.
Christian
Elliott
McCreary
Franklin
Hardin
Menifee
Robertson
Owsley
Edmonson
Lyon
Clay
Wolfe
Spencer
Martin
Breathitt
Green
Rowan
Jackson
Calloway
Bath
Earnings from
Government
$3,489,293,000
$25,756,000
$82,947,000
$936,163,000
$1,884,742,000
$20,209,000
$6,477,000
$13,595,000
$38,435,000
$48,048,000
$93,492,000
$20,245,000
$31,593,000
$66,100,000
$56,219,000
$37,718,000
$163,922,000
$34,485,000
$264,448,000
$26,833,000
Share of
All
Earnings in
County
73.8%
68.2%
57.4%
52.8%
52.8%
48.9%
48.4%
48.3%
48.1%
46.1%
44.6%
40.4%
37.1%
36.8%
36.2%
35.9%
35.9%
34.2%
33.7%
33.5%
Share of
Kentucky
Total
Government
Earnings
15.3%
0.1%
0.4%
4.1%
8.2%
0.1%
0.0%
0.1%
0.2%
0.2%
0.4%
0.1%
0.1%
0.3%
0.2%
0.2%
0.7%
0.2%
1.2%
0.1%
rest of state
$15,538,042,000
15.9%
67.9%
Kentucky
$22,878,762,000
20.8%
100.0%
Source: US Bureau of Economic Analysis
Which region has the
highest transfer payments
per capita?
 Lexington
 Paducah - Purchase
 Ashland

 Mountain
Transfer Payments per Capita, 2012, by Region
Mountain:
Mountain$3.9 billion total, or 40% of personal income
$11,653
Cumberland:
Cumberland $3.2 billion total, or 38% of personal income
$10,476
Ashland
$10,002
Paducah-Purchase
$8,963
Owensboro-Henderson
$8,610
Bowling Green-Hopkinsville
$7,737
Louisville
$7,578
Lexington
$7,417
NKY: $3.1
billion
total, or 17% of personal income
Northern
Kentucky
Kentucky
$6,580
$8,190
United States
$7,512
$0
$2,000
$4,000
$6,000
$8,000
Source: US Bureau of
Economic Analysis
$10,000
$12,000
$14,000
43 Years of Transfer Payments by Region
relative to national average
1.6
1.5
Transfer Payments per Capita, 2012
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
National average: $310 in 1969; $7,733 in 2012
0.9
Source of county data: US Bureau of Economic Analysis
0.8
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
Transfer Payments per Capita, 1969
1.4
1.5
1.6
43 Years of Transfer Payments by Region
relative to national average
1.6
Mountains
$387 in 1969; $11,653 in 2012
1.5
Transfer Payments per Capita, 2012
1.4
Cumberland
Ashland
1.3
1.2
Mountain and
Cumberland regions
much more dependent
in 2012 than in 1969.
Paducah - Purchase
Owensboro-Henderson
1.1
Bowling Green Hopkinsville
1.0
Louisville
Lexington
National average: $310 in 1969; $7,733 in 2012
0.9
Northern Kentucky
Source of county data: US Bureau of Economic Analysis
0.8
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
Transfer Payments per Capita, 1969
1.4
1.5
1.6
0%
Woodford
Fayette
Spencer
Jefferson
Christian
Warren
Trigg
Franklin
Madison
Bourbon
Webster
Mercer
Henderson
Hickman
Marshall
Greenup
Todd
Logan
Washington
Boyd
Caldwell
Rowan
Muhlenberg
Pike
Trimble
Butler
Russell
Fulton
Casey
Perry
Johnson
Letcher
Knott
Wayne
Lewis
Leslie
Bell
Menifee
Magoffin
Owsley
60%
Transfer Payments as Share of Total Personal Income
Kentucky Counties, 2011
3 counties above 50%
Source: US Bureau of Economic Analysis
50%
28 counties 40% or higher
40%
30%
20%
National average is 18%
10%
Percent of Adult Population Reporting a Disability, by Region
Mountain
28.6%
Cumberland
20.3%
Ashland
19.8%
Bowling GreenHopkinsville
15.6%
Paducah-Purchase
14.3%
Lexington
13.9%
Louisville
13.3%
Northern Kentucky
11.8%
Owensboro-Henderson
6.9%
Kentucky
Source: US Census Bureau, American
Community Survey, 2008-12, Table
C1820, universe includes population
aged 18 to 64.
15.5%
United States
10.0%
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
35%
Percent of Population Aged 18 to 64, Reporting a
Disability, Kentucky Counties
Top 18 counties are in
eastern Kentucky
Breathitt
McCreary
Jackson
Magoffin
Menifee
Estill
Bell
Perry
Bath
Morgan
Knox
Livingston
Pulaski
Montgomery
Casey
Boyd
Allen
Fleming
Barren
Henry
Carroll
Hancock
Owen
Mason
Franklin
Ohio
Clark
Anderson
Ballard
Grant
Hardin
Rowan
Simpson
Christian
Jefferson
Kenton
Scott
Shelby
Fayette
Oldham
Martin 33.4%
Harlan 32.5%
Breathitt 30.6%
Leslie 30.3%
Pike 30.2%
National average 10.0%
Source: US Census Bureau, American
Community Survey, 2008-12, Table C18120.
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
35%
Which region has the
highest rate of high school
graduates?
 Lexington
 Owensboro - Henderson
 Northern Kentucky

 Bowling Green - Hopkinsville
Percent of Adults with a High School Diploma or Higher
Source: US Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2008-2012.
90%
87.4%
85%
86.4%
85.7%
84.1%
83.7%
83.2%
82.4%
80.5%
80%
79.2%
75%
72.2%
70%
65%
60%
69.2%
Which region has the
highest rate of college
graduates?
 Lexington

 Louisville
 Northern Kentucky
 Bowling Green - Hopkinsville
Percent of Adults with a Bachelor Degree
or Higher
30%
28.5%
26.6%
25.2%
25%
24.8%
21.0%
20%
18.4%
16.5%
15%
14.7%
13.1%
11.5%
10%
5%
0%
11.2%
Agriculture, Forestry, Mining Share of Total Employee Compensation, All
Industries, Kentucky
Nostalgia Economics
5.0%
Source: US Bureau of Economic Analysis
Agriculture and Mining’s Share of Labor Income
4.6%
4.5%
4.0%
4.0%
3.6%
3.5%
3.0%
3.3%
Includes tobacco, corn, soybeans,
equine, cattle, pork, chickens, logging,
coal mining, oil and gas production……
3.3%
3.0%
2.7%
2.5%
2.6%
2.6%
2.5%
2.7%
2.6%
2.7%
2.5%
2.3%
2.3% 2.2%
2.2% 2.2%
2.2%
2.1%
2.3%
2.0%
1.5%
1.0%
0.5%
0.0%
1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
1780 - 1912
“The original motivation for having so
many counties was to ensure that
residents in the days of poor roads and
horseback travel could make a round
trip from their home to the county seat
and back in a single day, as well as
being able to travel from one county
seat to the next in the same fashion”
– Counties, The Kentucky Encyclopedia, John
E. Kleber, editor, The University Press of
Kentucky, 1992.
Kentucky’s 120 counties, the most per
square mile of any state
Horse, at 4 MPH, would take
16+ hours to get from Majestic
to Pikeville and back
Average county size is 330
square miles, so if county
seat is central, a horse could
make the round trip from
border in 5-6 hours.
Pike is largest, 788 sq. mi.
How far could a Kentucky resident travel today,
round trip, in 6 hours?
Well, three hours each way, averaging 45 MPH, would be 135 miles. For a round region,
that would imply a government center serving 57,000 square miles, larger than
Kentucky’s total of 40,000 square miles.
The largest economic region is Lexington,
with 6,800 square miles and 26 counties. The
longest travel time round trip, using a car at
45 MPH, would be 4 hours. So,
transportation improvements have allowed
access to a ‘local’ government center to be
the same now for a region containing 26
counties as it was 200 years ago for one
county.
Constitution requires each county to have County judge, county court clerk, county
attorney, county treasurer, county sheriff, jailer, coroner, surveyor, three to eight
justices of the peace, and three to eight constables. In counties; where the fiscal
court is composed of commissioners, three commissioners must also be elected
The state also pays for a county attorney, PVA, jails, DMV, in every county.
Thank you!
Go to http://kentuckyeconomicassociation.org/ to download a copy of this
presentation.

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