History Alive! Chapter 8 CHAPTER TITLE HERE!!!!

By Stephanie Ellegood
Graves Central Elementary
 Enslaved Africans: People from ____________ who
were forced to give up their ______________ and
spend their lives obeying and working for their
“______________” (masters)
 dilemmas: Situations in which a person is forced
to make a __________, even though there is no
_________ choice to make (ex: enslaved Africans
had to choose between __________ on the voyage
to America or working as a slave for _______)
 Middle Passage: The ____________ (“passage”) of
slave traders and enslaved Africans across the
_______________________ from _______ to the
o The West African region is along the __________ of
Africa above the _____________. To the north of it is the
_______________________. To the west and south is the
____________________. The land is mostly covered with
__________________ or __________________.
 West Africans were the alike in many ways:
 most people _____________, but some were miners,
craftspeople, or traders
 Trading ___________: ______ & _________ sent to countries
north of the Sahara desert
 Trading ___________: _______, __________, and other goods
 society was based on _____________
 families lived in the same _______________
 owned _________ together and shared their
 worshipped __________ of the ancestors and asked
spirits to ___________ them
 they enjoyed _____________________
 West Africans were different in many ways:
 some lived in small ______________ / some live in
 many different ___________________ were spoken.
 In the 1500’s most West Africans lived in
 In West Africa some people were not as ________
as others. Some were ________________ or
______________ who had been captured during
________, found guilty of ____________, or sold as
slaves by other ________________.
 Many of these “slaves” in Africa were different
that slaves in America. Many of them became
part of the _____________ they worked for. They
didn’t have as many ____________ as others in
the village, but they could ______ land and
________, as well as earn ___________ and gain
FREEDOM through ________ or ______________.
 Europeans used African slaves to work on their
sugar and tobacco ____________________ in the
Americas. Europeans bought slaves by
________________ cloth, rum, guns, tobacco,
etc… for them.
 The Africans that traded slaves for ________
became a ___________, so then their neighbors
also traded for guns. This soon caused slave
trade for guns all over West Africa
African’s reacted in different ways to the
need for many slaves by the slave traders.
A few West African _____________ to take
part in the slave trade. Many of these
people were _________________or sold as
Some captured Africans outside of their
______________________ and sold them to
slave traders. Some even kidnapped
African _______________ while the parents
were out __________________.
 Some traded people who were already
slaves such as _________________ of wars.
These Africans didn’t want to trade slaves,
but their neighbors who were trading slaves
were becoming ____________ and more
__________________. They feared these
neighbors might try to _________________
them and sell them as slaves.
 West Africans taken into slavery faced a long and terrible
_______________. They were put in ___________ and
marched _________________ of miles to the coast, and many
________ along the way. Others suffered ______________
and died when they reached the coast. Those who
survived were marked with hot branding ________ and
loaded onto slave ships.
 The voyage by ship to America was called the Middle
Passage because it was the second of three stages of
slave trade:
 Stage 1: _____________ and movement of slaves to the
__________ of Africa
 Stage 2: _____________ to the colonies on the
____________________ (Middle Passage)
 Stage 3: _________________ of slaves from American
ports to ___________________
 The voyage from Africa to the colonies took
about ________ weeks. (Middle Passage)
 During the Middle Passage slaves received little
_______________. Men were chained together in
_________ at their hands and feet. Many times
there was no room to ______ up or __________.
They were so close together they could barely
move. The rough boards gave them __________
on their bodies. The __________ and heat were
unbearable. There were lice, fleas, rats, blood,
and mucus. _____________ followed the ships
feeding on the dead thrown overboard.
 At least ________ million West Africans traveled
the Middle Passage. Between 10-20% died on
the voyages.
 Enslaved Africans reacted differently on the slave
 Some Africans tried to ______ themselves by
refusing to eat or jumping overboard. Losing
slaves meant losing ___________, so the ships’
captains tried to keep them alive. Slaves who
refused to eat were _______________ and their jaws
were ____________ open or their lips were burned
with _______________. If slaves jumped overboard,
the ship’s crew went after them in
_________________, and they were whipped when
they returned.
 Some Africans tied to __________ against the
crew. They attacked with knives or pieces of
metal or wood they tore from the ship. One
slave named _____________________ led a revolt
on a slave ship. The slaves killed the
_____________ and tool over the ship.
 Many Africans saved their energy to
________________, were too sick to ____________,
or just chose not to resist.
 When slaves arrived in the colonies, they were
sold to plantation owners at “scrambles” or
 At _________________ the price was the _______ for
each slave and buyers grabbed the slaves they
 At slave _______________ the slaves stood on an
auction ___________ and slaves were sold one at a
time to the highest _____________. Many African
families were separated and never saw each other
 During the first year on plantations (also called
the “_______________” period) slaves received
new ___________, were shouted at in
_________________ they didn’t know, and given
strange ________ to use. If they didn’t
understand of resisted, they were whipped,
burned, or killed.
 Slaves worked in fields ____ hours a day planting
and picking _________. They sometimes walked
an ________ to and from the fields. _________ or
more people lived in small cabins with _______
floors and slept on bundles of __________ with
rags for blankets.
 Slaves reacted differently to their new lives on
 Some slaves tried to ________________. Most that
ran away were caught and punished or even killed.
 Some slaves resisted by “playing ________” by
pretending not to understand what they were
asked to do. Some slaves pretended to be too
______ or _____ to work. Some broke _________ or
set buildings on ________. Some even
_____________ themselves because they believed
when they died they would return home to West
 Some slaves worked ________ and did what they
were told to do. They wanted their masters to
make them house servants or skilled workers.
Some slaves worked in the “__________________ ”
with the master’s family. Sometimes slaves were
paid for extra work on _________________ and
________________. They hoped to earn enough
money to buy their _________________. Few slaves
became free that way.

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