Unit 4: The New Republic, Growth, and Reform (1789-1850) Overview: Reformers of the Antebellum Era Daily Learning Target: •I can analyze and identify the major characteristics of the abolitionist movement, the drive for women’s rights, and other significant religious, philosophical, and social reform movements of the Antebellum period. The Four Major Areas of Antebellum Reform 1. Abolition of Slavery 2. Women’s Rights 3. Religious Revival 4. Social Problems 1. The Abolitionist Movement Goal: To end slavery in the South. Background: By 1804, all states north of MD had ended slavery and the slave trade was banned in 1808. Abolitionists viewed slaves as the nation’s most exploited and desperate people. Both whites and blacks used a variety of methods to fight the “peculiar institution.” 2. Women’s Rights Goal: To gain equality for American women. Background: In the early 1800s women usually couldn’t own property, hold office, vote, get an education beyond grade school, earn the same pay as men, or, in some cases, even work outside the home. Industrialization and the abolitionist movement helped inspire the women’s movement; women also disagreed about how “equal” they should be. 3. Religious Revival Goal: To lead individuals to personal salvation and apply Christian morals and values to create a better U.S. society. Background: In 1801, a Second Great Awakening, born on the Kentucky frontier, believed increased religious participation was the key to the country’s survival and prosperity. The movement was led by Protestant preachers. In 1800 only 20% of Americans went to church; by 1850, 50% attended. New churches (Mormon, Unitarian, Church of Christ, Shakers, and AME) were founded. Some religions (Roman Catholic, Jews, and Mormons) faced discrimination. 4. Social Problems Goal: To end suffering in America and help those in need. Background: Targeted a variety of issues such as drinking (temperance), dueling, prisons, hospitals, asylums, labor, Native Americans, diet, and education. The successes and failures of these movements are varied in degree. Assignment: Foldable Notes Reformers of the Antebellum Era 1. The Abolitionist Movement William Lloyd Garrison – most influential abolitionist, Boston, MA – anti-slavery newspaper called The Liberator Frederick Douglas – best-known black abolitionist; an escaped, self-taught, MD slave who traveled & spoke out against slavery; published anti-slavery paper The North Star Harriet Tubman – escaped slave who led more than 300 slaves to freedom on Underground Railroad – a secret network of conductors, paths, and safe houses from S-N & Canada Grimke Sisters – daughters of S slaveholders who went N to speak out against slavery; also worked for women’s rights Henry David Thoreau – well-known MA author who used civil disobedience to combat slavery; refusing to obey an unjust law 2. Women’s Rights Susan B. Anthony – best known advocate for women’s rights. Worked for over 50 years for the vote, temperance, and abolition of slavery. Elizabeth Cady Stanton – speaker who helped organize the Seneca Falls Convention (1848) – which fought for women’s suffrage Lucretia Mott – Quaker; helped organize Women’s Antislavery Society and Seneca Falls Convention & traveled widely to help fight for women’s rights Sojourner Truth – ex-NY slave; writer and speaker who fought against slavery and women’s rights with L. Mott 3. Religious Revival Second Great Awakening – Began in early 1800s on KY frontier; led by Protestant preachers who believed individual salvation would lead people to work for a better society. Church membership grew from 20% in 1800 to 50% by 1850. Charles Grandison Finney – most influential revivalist of Second Great Awakening Joseph Smith & Brigham Young – NY: organized Mormon Church (1830); banished from OH & MO, Smith was murdered & Young led them to Utah Mother Ann Lee (Shakers) – from England to NY (1774); brought “Shaking Quakers” to America. Taught celibacy and forbade marriage and shook during worship. After her death missionaries found a Shaker commune at Pleasant Hill, KY (1805-1910) that grew crops and produced hand-made goods for sale. 4. Social Problems Dorothea Dix – MA Sunday School teacher inspired by 2nd Great Awakening; worked for prison, hospital, mental asylum reform, & humane treatment of prisoners. Horace Mann – MA education reformer: “Education is the great equalizer.” Favored tax-supported, state-controlled public schools, standardized tests, and professional teachers. American Temperance Society – worked to abolish alcohol because they believed it was responsible for abuse, poverty, crime, & health problems; Maine Laws (1851) were 1st of 12 states to limit sale of alcohol You know your Antebellum Reformers if you can answer these! 1. Which organization below worked to make the manufacture, sale, and consumption of alcohol illegal? a. the Seneca Falls Convention c. the Niagara Movement b. the American Temperance Society d. the Salvation Army 2. Reformers William Lloyd Garrison, Angelina and Sarah Grimke, and Frederick Douglas are most closely associated with which movement? a. Abolition c. Temperance b. the Second Great Awakening d. Women’s Suffrage 3. Which 19th Century reformer is best known for working to help people with mental illness? a. Abigail Adams c. Margaret Fuller b. Dorothea Dix d. Horace Mann 4. Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and Lucretia Mott worked tirelessly for women’s suffrage. Women’s suffrage means a. equal pay for equal work. c. the right of women to vote. b. putting an end to spousal abuse. d. women can inherit property. 5. Which statement below is false regarding the Second Great Awakening that swept the U.S. during the early 1800s? a. It began on the Kentucky frontier near the present-day city of Paris. b. It was started by Protestant revivalists who held outdoor services and camp meetings. c. Church membership declined from 50 percent in 1800 to 20 percent in 1850. d.It inspired people to work for an improved society as well as for personal salvation.