08 Thinking Errors

Report
Thinking Errors Cause……..
 Depression
 Panic Attacks
 Divorce
 Suicide
 Drop out students
 Failure
 And Much More
Defeat Thinking Errors
Arbitrary Inference
Solution
 Conclusions made in the
 Ask the truth questions, “Is




absence of supporting
evidence. Examples:
If you don’t like Obama’s health
care program, you’re a racist.
If you weren’t for the Iraq war,
you’re not a patriot.
If you didn’t vote against prop.
8, you’re a homophobe.
If you don’t join our religion,
you’re going to hell.
the info. I have based on
fact?”
 “Are there cases when
these statements aren’t
true?”
 Is the conclusion based on
any of the Self-defeating
Beliefs in the handout. For
example, “People won’t
accept me if I’m flawed.”
Defeat Thinking Errors
Selective Abstraction
Solution
 Information is taken out of
 Ask, “What’s the evidence for
context; certain details are
highlighted while other
important info. is ignored.
 For example, “A woman
whose husband fails to
answer her greeting the first
thing in the morning
concludes, “he must be
angry at me again.”
this claim?”
 Do a survey to test your
negative thought. For example,
if you think that your shyness is
weird, you could ask several
friends if they’ve ever felt shy.
You’ll find most people feel shy
at times.
 Is the conclusion based on any
of the Self-defeating Beliefs in
the handout.
Defeat Thinking Errors
Overgeneralization
Solution
 An isolated incident or two is
 Ask, “Is this thought based
allowed to represent similar
situations everywhere,
related or unrelated. For
example, after being turned
down for an initial date, a
young man concludes, “All
women are alike; I’ll always
be rejected.”
on fact?” Can it be proven?
 Substitute language that’s
less insulting and
emotionally loaded such as
sometimes and occasionally
instead of never and always.
 Is the conclusion based on
any of the Self-defeating
Beliefs in the handout.
Defeat Thinking Errors
Emotional Reasoning
Solution
 You believe that what you
 Ask, “Is this thought based
feel must be true —
automatically.
 For example, if you feel
stupid and boring, then you
must be stupid and boring.
Or, I feel fat, so I am fat. Or,
I feel attacked, so they must
have attacked me. Or I feel
like a loser so I must be. Or,
I feel anxious, so I must be in
danger.
on fact?” Can it be proven?
 Substitute language that’s
less insulting and
emotionally loaded such as
sometimes and occasionally
instead of never and always.
 Is the conclusion based on
any of the Self-defeating
Beliefs in the handout.
Use a Cost-Benefit Analysis
to Change a Belief/Behavior
Disadvantages of
Overeating
 I’ll be unhealthy
 I’ll be unattractive
 I won’t have much energy
 I’ll feel bad about myself
Advantages of Overeating
 Food is pleasurable and an




immediate reward.
I can feel sorry for myself
because I’m fat
I can resent those who look
down on people like me
Exercise requires lots of
effort
I can avoid the real problem
by distracting myself by
eating.
Use a Cost-Benefit Analysis
to Change a Belief/Behavior
Disadvantages of
Procrastination
 I never get anything done.
Advantages of
Procrastination
 I can do something else that’s
 I won’t feel good about

myself.
 I’ll never accomplish any of
my goals



more enjoyable
It would be unpleasant to get
started.
What ever I do will only be a
drop in the bucket anyway.
I can get back at the person
who’s nagging me to do the
things I’ve been putting off.
I can have a good excuse for
failing by telling myself I didn’t
really try.
Being Overly Nice = Anxiety
 Pleasing Others, Conflict
Phobia, and Anger Phobia
 Emotional Perfectionism
 Emotophobia
 You feel you have to please
everyone at the expense of
your own feelings.
 You think you should always
feel happy and optimistic
about your life, your work,
and other people.
 You believe you should
always be in control of the
way you feel and never
allow yourself to feel
anxious, vulnerable, lonely,
jealous, annoyed, or
inadequate.
Confront your Thinking Errors Now
 Write down any thinking errors you may have about:
 Yourself
 Others…friend, spouse, relative, boss, boy/girl friend
 An Event
 Life
 Test the evidence using the truth questions and the
self-defeating beliefs.

similar documents