Thinking Errors Cause…….. Depression Panic Attacks Divorce Suicide Drop out students Failure And Much More Defeat Thinking Errors Arbitrary Inference Solution Conclusions made in the Ask the truth questions, “Is absence of supporting evidence. Examples: If you don’t like Obama’s health care program, you’re a racist. If you weren’t for the Iraq war, you’re not a patriot. If you didn’t vote against prop. 8, you’re a homophobe. If you don’t join our religion, you’re going to hell. the info. I have based on fact?” “Are there cases when these statements aren’t true?” Is the conclusion based on any of the Self-defeating Beliefs in the handout. For example, “People won’t accept me if I’m flawed.” Defeat Thinking Errors Selective Abstraction Solution Information is taken out of Ask, “What’s the evidence for context; certain details are highlighted while other important info. is ignored. For example, “A woman whose husband fails to answer her greeting the first thing in the morning concludes, “he must be angry at me again.” this claim?” Do a survey to test your negative thought. For example, if you think that your shyness is weird, you could ask several friends if they’ve ever felt shy. You’ll find most people feel shy at times. Is the conclusion based on any of the Self-defeating Beliefs in the handout. Defeat Thinking Errors Overgeneralization Solution An isolated incident or two is Ask, “Is this thought based allowed to represent similar situations everywhere, related or unrelated. For example, after being turned down for an initial date, a young man concludes, “All women are alike; I’ll always be rejected.” on fact?” Can it be proven? Substitute language that’s less insulting and emotionally loaded such as sometimes and occasionally instead of never and always. Is the conclusion based on any of the Self-defeating Beliefs in the handout. Defeat Thinking Errors Emotional Reasoning Solution You believe that what you Ask, “Is this thought based feel must be true — automatically. For example, if you feel stupid and boring, then you must be stupid and boring. Or, I feel fat, so I am fat. Or, I feel attacked, so they must have attacked me. Or I feel like a loser so I must be. Or, I feel anxious, so I must be in danger. on fact?” Can it be proven? Substitute language that’s less insulting and emotionally loaded such as sometimes and occasionally instead of never and always. Is the conclusion based on any of the Self-defeating Beliefs in the handout. Use a Cost-Benefit Analysis to Change a Belief/Behavior Disadvantages of Overeating I’ll be unhealthy I’ll be unattractive I won’t have much energy I’ll feel bad about myself Advantages of Overeating Food is pleasurable and an immediate reward. I can feel sorry for myself because I’m fat I can resent those who look down on people like me Exercise requires lots of effort I can avoid the real problem by distracting myself by eating. Use a Cost-Benefit Analysis to Change a Belief/Behavior Disadvantages of Procrastination I never get anything done. Advantages of Procrastination I can do something else that’s I won’t feel good about myself. I’ll never accomplish any of my goals more enjoyable It would be unpleasant to get started. What ever I do will only be a drop in the bucket anyway. I can get back at the person who’s nagging me to do the things I’ve been putting off. I can have a good excuse for failing by telling myself I didn’t really try. Being Overly Nice = Anxiety Pleasing Others, Conflict Phobia, and Anger Phobia Emotional Perfectionism Emotophobia You feel you have to please everyone at the expense of your own feelings. You think you should always feel happy and optimistic about your life, your work, and other people. You believe you should always be in control of the way you feel and never allow yourself to feel anxious, vulnerable, lonely, jealous, annoyed, or inadequate. Confront your Thinking Errors Now Write down any thinking errors you may have about: Yourself Others…friend, spouse, relative, boss, boy/girl friend An Event Life Test the evidence using the truth questions and the self-defeating beliefs.