Optional Module 1.2B - Circumstances (PowerPoint 396KB)

Report
Language and
Literacy Levels
Module 1.2 B:
Circumstances
Instructions
If after reading the glossary, indicators and
examples about this language item in the
Levels you still need to learn more, it is
anticipated that you will work through this
PowerPoint at your own pace and without the
need to be supported by a trainer. However,
depending upon your school's implementation
plan, you may be able to email or post any
questions to your trainer or discuss them with
your Professional Learning Community or
similar group.
What does it mean?
• When you hear someone say “I’ll do it
under these circumstances?” what do they
mean by circumstances?
• It means they want to decide things like
when and where it happens?
• This is very much the same as the
grammatical term of circumstances.
• Both involve giving extra information about
the doing (the verb or process).
Circumstances
Circumstances can be categorised according to the type of
detail they provide about the verb. Students tend to provide
these circumstances (answers to questions about the verb)
by Levels 5-6
 Place (where?): He knocked the clock off the shelf.
 Time (when?): I finished it this morning.
 Accompaniment (with whom?): He left with his friend.
 Manner (how? like what?): She opened it carefully. She
opened it with a can-opener. She opened it like an
expert.
Circumstances
Students tend to provide these circumstances
(answers to questions about the verb) from Levels
8-10
 Matter (what is it about?): He was concerned
about the clock.
 Cause (for what reason/purpose? on whose
behalf?): The man died of heart failure. He ate it
for breakfast. She opened it for his mother.
 Role (as who?): She worked as a doctor.
Circumstances
Students tend to provide these circumstances
(answers to questions about the verb) between
Levels 11-14
 Angle (from whose viewpoint?): According to his
doctors, his heart was very weak.
 Contingency (in what contrary situation?): With a
modified diet and exercise program, he could
have lived for years. Despite the warnings, he
continued to work long hours.
Circumstances
• Circumstances are sometimes called
‘adverbials’ and usually have the form of:
 an adverb or adverb group/phrase:
carefully or very carefully
 a prepositional phrase: off the shelf; like
an expert; according to doctors; despite
the warnings
 a noun group/phrase: this morning; one
sunny afternoon
Circumstances
• In this sentence “mow” is what is
happening (verb/process)
• I’ll mow on the weekend. (on the weekend
gives information about when the verb will
happen)
• I’ll mow under the trees. (under the trees
gives information about where the verb will
happen)
More information about the verb
• I’ll mow for free. (for free gives information
about what has caused the verb to
happen)
• I’ll mow quickly. (quickly gives information
about the manner in which the verb will
happen)
• I’ll mow with the push mower. (with the
push mower gives information about the
manner by which the verb will happen)
Checkpoint
• There are several types of circumstances.
• They all give more information (eg where,
when, how, with what) about the verb.
• Different parts of speech (eg nouns,
adverbs) can act as circumstances (ie give
information about the verb)
Sequence and complexity
• There is a fairly predictable sequence to the
types of circumstances that students use.
• They usually begin with where and when
circumstances (eg I swam at the beach, I swam
on the weekend.)
• They tend to begin by placing the circumstances
later in the sentence (eg I swam on the
weekend) before gaining enough control of
grammar to pace them at the beginning (eg On
the weekend I swam.)
Sequence and complexity
• After a while they will start using them in
combination (eg On the weekend I swam
at the beach).
• Later again they will use commas after
circumstances at the beginning of
sentences (eg On the weekend, I swam at
the beach).
Sequence and complexity
• As well as adding new types of circumstances, students
will use more complex examples of circumstances they
have been using for some time (eg Today > This
evening > During the war > Throughout the early part of
her life)
• Scan through the circumstances in Levels 1-10 for more
examples
• If you want more of a challenge scan the examples in
Levels 11-14.
• The Levels will give you a sense of not only what type of
circumstances to look for in your student’s work but also
where they might be in the sentence, how many there
could be and how complex they could be.
Fancy a challenge?
• If you would prefer to practice locating
circumstances before you “fly solo”, try
locating the circumstance/s in this
sentence.
• HINT find the verb first. What is
happening? What’s going on?
• We carefully placed the stopper into the
test tube.
Fancy a challenge?
• We carefully placed the stopper into the
test tube.
• Here are the two circumstances in the
sentence.
• What question is answered by carefully?
• What question is answered by into the test
tube?
Fancy a challenge?
• We carefully placed the stopper into the
test tube.
• Here are the two circumstances in the
sentence.
• What question is answered by carefully?
How - manner
• What question is answered by into the test
tube? Where - place
Try locating circumstances in the
text below
• With little thought for her own safety, she
plunged headlong into the raging waters.
Within seconds, she sank in the swollen
river, but quickly resurfaced with the child.
• Find the verbs and then the where, when,
how etc information about them.
Try locating circumstances in the
text below
• Verbs are shown in green
• With little thought for her own safety, she
plunged headlong into the raging waters.
Within seconds, she sank in the swollen
river, but quickly resurfaced with the child.
Try locating circumstances in the
text below
• First verb is shown in green and
circumstance of manner in blue
• With little thought for her own safety, she
plunged headlong into the raging waters.
Within seconds, she sank in the swollen
river, but quickly resurfaced with the child.
Try locating circumstances in the
text below
• First verb is shown in green and
circumstance of manner in blue
• With little thought for her own safety, she
plunged headlong into the raging waters.
Within seconds, she sank in the swollen
river, but quickly resurfaced with the child.
Try locating circumstances in the
text below
• First verb is shown in green and
circumstance of where (place) in blue
• With little thought for her own safety, she
plunged headlong into the raging waters.
Within seconds, she sank in the swollen
river, but quickly resurfaced with the child.
Try locating circumstances in the
text below
• Next verb is shown in green and
circumstance of when (time) in blue
• With little thought for her own safety, she
plunged headlong into the raging waters.
Within seconds, she sank in the swollen
river, but quickly resurfaced with the child.
Try locating circumstances in the
text below
• Next verb is shown in green and
circumstance of where (place) in blue
• With little thought for her own safety, she
plunged headlong into the raging waters.
Within seconds, she sank in the swollen
river, but quickly resurfaced with the child.
Try locating circumstances in the
text below
• Last verb is shown in green and
circumstance of how (means) in blue
• With little thought for her own safety, she
plunged headlong into the raging waters.
Within seconds, she sank in the swollen
river, but quickly resurfaced with the child.
Try locating circumstances in the
text below
• Last verb is shown in green and
circumstance of with whom
(accompaniment) in blue
• With little thought for her own safety, she
plunged headlong into the raging waters.
Within seconds, she sank in the swollen
river, but quickly resurfaced with the child.
Try locating circumstances in the
text below
• All verbs are shown in green and all
circumstances in blue
• With little thought for her own safety, she
plunged headlong into the raging waters.
Within seconds, she sank in the swollen
river, but quickly resurfaced with the child.
Fancy another challenge?
• This challenge is really a double challenge
because you firstly need to find verbs that
are NOT doing words. These verbs show
relationships between the things in the
sentence (eg Xian has two brothers. Julie
is clever.)
• The second part of the challenge is to
locate circumstances that are high in the
Language and Literacy Levels.
Fancy another challenge?
• As a migrant, she had little knowledge of
the local road rules. Despite this
disadvantage, she became dux of her
driving school.
Fancy another challenge?
• As a migrant, she had little knowledge of
the local road rules. Despite this
disadvantage, she became dux of her
driving school.
FYI As a migrant is a circumstance of cause and Despite this disadvantage is a
circumstance of contingency
Why bother?
• This module is about assigning Levels, but
to end the module it is important to keep in
mind that the teaching of circumstances in
general or some types to certain students
enables them to enhance their written and
oral work.
• To illustrate the point, on the next slide are
some of the earlier sentences without the
circumstances.
On the weekend I swam at
the beach.
I swam.
We carefully placed the
stopper into the test tube.
We placed the stopper.
With little thought for her
own safety, she plunged
headlong into the raging
waters.
Within seconds, she sank in
the swollen river, but quickly
resurfaced with the child.
She plunged.
She sank, but resurfaced.

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