Forgiveness Conversations in Small Groups

Report
CCPA Annual Convention
Victoria
2014

Forgiveness Conversations
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Table of Contents
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Introduction
Session One – Forgiveness Defined
Session Two – A Model of Forgiveness
Session Three –The Anatomy of an Apology
Session Four – Quotations on Forgiveness
Session Five – Forgiveness on the Silver Screen
Session Six – A Theory of Forgiveness
Session Seven – Forgiveness Stories
Appendices
References
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Introduction
 The Evolution of an Offense
▪
▪
▪
▪
You are offended.
The offender crossed a line.
Carelessly, mistakenly, naively, unknowingly or purposely.
When a line is crossed there’s a weight and burden transferred
from offender to offended.
▪ You have acquired a debt … owed by the offender.
▪ All this through no choice … desire … wish … want or will of your
own … you did not ask for this.
▪ Regardless … you are now connected and in bondage with the
offender … because you share in the weight of the debt that was
transferred to you and the burden that you somehow acquired.
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Introduction … The Evolution of an Offense
 Some describe it as weight, others as a prison or a knot that resists
untying.
 Day and night you look for relief, for a window to escape from the
confines of the prison, a release from the bind you are in.
 You are offended on at least two counts:
One: … that the offender crossed the line and
Two: …that you are now in league with the offender who put this
weight on your shoulders and are now stuck with a debt that is owed by
the offender and the debt is not being attended to or settled
“ I have always found
that mercy bears richer fruits
that strict justice.” Abraham Lincoln

Introduction … The Evolution of an Offense
 You have two options:
▪ One … Make the offender pay so that the debt is borne by the
offender. In this way you extract the justified debt from the offender
through due process of law or by an act of revenge in an attempt to
even the score by personal retaliation.
▪ Two … In your search for justice, when the entitled payment for debt
is not forthcoming, show respect for yourself by absorbing the debt
and cancelling the debt. And as you painfully carry the debt of the
offense on your own shoulders you acknowledge that the demands of
justice have been met. The offender then owes you nothing.
“In every act of mercy the one who is
merciful absorbs the debt of the one
to whom mercy is shown.”
T. Keller
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Those Who Benefit Most From These Sessions
 Have a question, issue, story or idea regarding forgiveness which is
kept in mind as the sessions go on.
 Express a “take-away value” at the conclusion of each session.
 Keep a journal in which to develop one or two ideas which have
surfaced in the sessions.
“Always forgive your enemies,
Nothing annoys them so much.”
Oscar Wilde
____________________________________________________________________________________
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Giving and Receiving Forgiveness:
Six Directions of Forgiving
 Forgiving others … being forgiven by others
 Forgiving self … being forgiven by self
 Forgiving Creator/God* … being forgiven by Creator/God
-------------------------------------------------------“Most of us can forgive and forget,
we just don’t want others
to forget that we forgave.”
Ivern Ball
____________________________________
* Higher Power/ What Energizes the Universe
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Your Interest in Forgiveness … A brief conversation
 Introductions: Give your name and any other information (below) in
regard to forgiveness. As in all of our work, stay well within your
comfort zone.
 What brings you to the forgiveness group? What is your interest in
forgiveness?
 Do you have a question, issue, story or idea regarding forgiveness
you would like to explore?
__________________________________________________
Note:
 Tell your own story about how you came to be interested in forgiveness.

Session One … Forgiveness Defined
 Quotation:
“ Having looked the beast in the eye,
Having asked and received forgiveness,
Let us shut the door on the past,
Not to forget it,
But to allow it not to imprison us.”
Desmond Tutu
 Structured Exercise:
▪ Forgiving is difficult and involves a lot of hard work. Most people initially
resist forgiving while many eventually become forgivers.
▪ What do you feel are some of the greatest impediments, roadblocks and
hindrances to forgiving?
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Session One … Forgiveness Defined
 Forgiveness Is Not …
▪
▪
▪
▪
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An Event: It is a path, a walk, a way and process
Forgetting: It must be remembered
Reconciling: Restoring the relationship may not be wise
Absolution: We don’t have the authority
Pardoning: We do not want to do them a favour
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Session One … Forgiveness Defined
 Forgiveness is not …
▪
▪
▪
▪
▪
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Excusing: Offenses cannot be excused
Condoning: It can’t be justified
Denying: It must be seen for what it is
Settling: Forgiving is not an inferior choice
Feel Fair: It must be just, but it may not “feel” fair
Unfair: If forgiveness ignores justice it cannot be wholesome
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Session One … Forgiveness Defined
 Forgiveness Is When …
▪ The offended is able to recognize and acknowledge a defined
injustice.
▪ The offended chooses to withhold authentic resentment toward the
offender, rather than respond with justified retribution.
▪ The offended grieves the loss and cancels the debt which the offender
owes, acknowledging that justice has been done.
 Take-Away Value … “My take-away value is …”
_________________________________________________
Note:
Suggest what your own Take-Away Value is … “As I listen to your stories I’m
impressed about how difficult the struggle is to deal with the injustice … it
just never ends … it goes on and on”

Session Two … A Model of Forgiveness
 Quotation:
▪ “When we forgive an injustice
We do not excuse it,
We do not tolerate it,
We do not supress it,
We look the evil full in the face,
Call it what it is,
Let its horror shock, stun and enrage us,
And only then do we forgive.”
Lewis Smedes
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Session Two … A Model of Forgiveness
 Structured Exercise
▪ Resistance to forgiving is usually our first response when we are
offended. There are many logical and reasonable motives for
resisting. Some are:
▪ “It feels like I am giving up or giving in.”
▪ “It seems like I’m saying she is right and I am wrong.”
▪ “If I forgive, he will just do it again.”
▪ What are other examples of resistance to forgiving that you have
encountered or that you may presently have?
▪ ________________________________________________________
▪ ________________________________________________________
▪ ________________________________________________________
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Session Two …
 A Model of Forgiveness
The Themes of Forgiving
▪ Dealing with Justice
▪ Grieving the Loss
▪ Cancelling the Debt
“The moral arc of the universe
bends on the elbow of justice.”
Martin Luther King
”Nothing makes justice just,
But mercy.”
Robert Frost

A Model of Forgiveness
The Themes of Forgiving
 Dealing with Justice
▪ Name the injury
▪ Define the injustice
▪ Rage over the wrong
▪ “I will never be held accountable
for what was done to me,
but will always be responsible
for what I do in return.”
Viktor Frankl

A Model of Forgiveness
The Themes of Forgiving
 Grieve the Loss
▪ Knowledge: know the loss – know what was taken.
▪ Acknowledge: claim the loss – separate what was lost from what is
left.
▪ Describe your new identity: include this chapter in your story without
making it the title of the book; the loss could be a footnote or an
appendix.
“He defined himself by what was left
rather than by what was lost.”
The Story of Paganini

A Model of Forgiveness
The Themes of Forgiving
 Cancel the Debt
▪ Every offense incurs a debt
▪ The offender is not paying
▪ The choice is yours … to make the offender pay
… or carry the debt yourself
“With every act of mercy,
The one who is merciful,
Bears the debt of the one
To whom mercy is shown.”
Tim Keller
“Mercy does not overlook the injustice,
It looks beyond it.” dk
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 My “Take- Away Value” for this session is _____________________
___________________________________________________________.
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A Model of Forgiveness
 Structured Exercise … a conversation with someone next to you
Where Are You?
 Consider a forgiveness issue of your own
 Where are you on the forgiveness pathway and where is most of your
energy focused?
 Dealing with Justice
 Grieving the Loss
 Canceling the Debt
“The salient quality of mercy is in
offering the offended the choice of withholding
justified retribution in the face of authentic resentment.” dk
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Session Three …
The Anatomy of an Apology
 Quotation:
▪ “Never apologize, mister. It’s a sign of weakness.”
John Wayne in “She Wore A Yellow Ribbon” (1949)
 Structured Exercise:
▪ Apologizing is never easy. But when we apologize we usually want
to reconcile with someone we have offended and/or restore a
relationship that needs repair.
▪ Using the template given compose an apology for an offense you
are aware of or an offense you committed.

The Anatomy of an Apology
The Language of Apology
 Demonstrate Genuine Empathy: “I hurt you” be specific, concrete
and clear … express understanding of the pain you caused.
 Accept Responsibility: “I was wrong” … this was a moral choice that
you made … not a slip and fall … don’t minimize or excuse.
 Express Regret: “I am sorry” … contrition and words expressing
sorrow are essential.
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The Anatomy of an Apology
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The Language of Apology
 Make Restitution: “I want to make it up to you …” express a genuine
desire to do what it takes to make it right.
 Genuine Promise: “I will not do it again.” … “I know I need help.” …
“I will make myself responsible to a third party.” … “I cannot allow
this to happen again.”
 Request Forgiveness: “I know I don’t deserve it.” … “I know it is too
much to ask, but could you forgive me?”
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The Anatomy of an Apology
 When Apologizing Do Not:
▪
▪
▪
▪
▪
▪
▪
▪
▪
Explain: “I know what it looks like, but I need to explain …”
Rationalize: “If you look at it rationally …”
Normalize: “ Wouldn’t anyone have done the same thing …”
Editorialize: “Looking at it objectively as an outsider …”
Justify: “With all that was going on my options were limited …”
Excuse: “I was just not myself … “
Analyze: “The cold hard facts add up to this …”
Describe: “This is the way it happened …”
Weigh the Bad Against the Good : “Adding up all the good I’ve done …”
 ANY ATTEMPT AT ANY OF THE ABOVE DIMINISHES THE APOLOGY

The Anatomy of an Apology
 The Meaning of an Apology
▪ What the Offender is Saying
▪ “I want relationship with you”
▪ “My desire is to reconcile”
▪ “I hope to restore our friendship”
What the Offended is Understanding
▪ “I am valued and affirmed”
▪ “I’m not to blame for the whole thing”
▪ “I‘m worthy of respect and truth”
 My “Take-Away Value” for this session is ___________________
__________________________________________________________
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Session Four…
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Quotations on Forgiveness
 Quotation:
▪ “It is a good thing … to read books of quotations. Bartlett’s Familiar
Quotations is an admirable work, and I studied it intently. The quotations,
when engraved upon the memory, give you good thoughts. They also make
you anxious to read the authors and look for more.”
Winston Churchill in My Early Life (1930)
 Structured Exercise:
▪ Jerry Seinfeld in a “Late Night” interview with David Letterman once
described good humour as “density of thought”. Perhaps that could also be
said of a good quotation. It reduces a significant thought into a small space
and it’s most dense form.
▪ Participants in this session, will each bring their favourite quotation on
forgiveness and facilitate a brief discussion on its merits.
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Quotations on Forgiveness
 The Need for Revenge
▪ “There is one major flaw in the law of revenge, it never settles the
score.” Philip Yancey
▪ “Where un-forgiveness reigns … a Newtonian law comes into play.
For every atrocity there must be an equal and opposite atrocity.”
Lance Morrow
▪ “The only remedy for the inevitability of history is forgiveness;
otherwise we remain trapped in the predicament of irreversibility.”
Hannah Arendt
▪ “Vengeance is the lazy man’s justice.” The Interpreter DVD
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Quotations on Forgiveness
 General
▪ “If one by one we counted people out for the least of sins, it
wouldn’t take us long, until we had no one left to live with. For to
be social is to be forgiving.” Robert Frost
▪ “He who cannot forgive, burns the bridge over which he himself
must cross in order to be forgiven.” George Herbert
▪ “Forgiving does not erase the bitter past, a healed memory is not
a deleted memory. Instead, forgiving what we cannot forget,
creates a new way to remember … we change the memory of our
past into hope for the future.” Lewis Smedes
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Quotations on Forgiveness
 Humour
▪ “Everyone thinks forgiveness is a good idea until they have someone to
forgive.” C.S. Lewis
▪ “If we practice an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth, soon the world
will be blind and toothless.” Ghandi
▪ “Always forgive your enemies, nothing annoys them more.” Oscar Wilde
▪ “Most of us can forgive and forget, we just don’t want the other to
forget that we forgave.” Ivern Ball
▪ “If you can’t forgive and forget … pick one.” Robert Brandt
▪ “No one forgets where they buried the hatchet.” Frank McKinney
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Quotations on Forgiveness
 Anger
▪ “You will not be punished for your anger,
you will be punished by your anger.” Buddha
▪ “When we forgive an injustice
We do not excuse it,
We do not tolerate it,
We do not supress it,
We look the evil full in the face,
Call it what it is,
Let its horror shock, stun and enrage us,
Only then do we forgive.
Lewis Smedes

Quotations on Forgiveness
 Cancelling the Debt
▪ “Notice that in every option (of offenses) the cost of the damages must be
borne by someone … the debt did not somehow vanish into thin air.”
Timothy Keller
▪ If the perpetrator suffers, you may begin to feel a certain satisfaction …
feeling that they are now paying off the debt … there are some serious
problems with this option …” Keller
▪ “There is another option, however. You can forgive. Forgiving means that
you refuse to make them pay for what they did.” Keller
▪ Forgiving means … you are absorbing the debt, taking the cost
completely on yourself instead of taking the cost out of the other person.
It hurts terribly. Many people say it feels like a kind of death.” Keller

Session Five:
Forgiveness on the Silver Screen
 Structured Exercise:
▪ The value of a good story is that the reader is able to identify with
the character in the story and gain experience and insight which
would otherwise not be possible.
▪ The participants in this session each bring a short story/movie clip
and facilitate a brief discussion regarding the value and insight
they gained through it.
 Quote:
▪ “Holding on to anger is like holding on to a hot coal,
You are the only one getting burned.”
Buddha

Forgiveness on the Silver Screen
 Movie Title: “A Thousand Acres”
▪ The story in the movie is about a western rancher with three
daughters, Jenny, Rose and Caroline. The father had abused the
oldest two daughters. The clip we see is a hospital scene at the
conclusion of the movie where Rose is dying of cancer. Jenny is by
her side as Rose is maintaining that her only claim to anything
significant in life was that she “refused to forgive the
unforgivable”.

Forgiveness on the Silver Screen
 Questions to Ponder
▪ Rose, with great caution concludes, “I do not have any
accomplishments … I didn’t get to be a great farmer … I was not a
good wife … but what I did … and all I have is that I saw …
without being afraid … and without turning away … and that I did
not forgive the unforgivable … that’s my sole, solitary and only
accomplishment … that’s something isn’t it?”
▪ What could Rose genuinely have believed she had accomplished
by “not forgiving the unforgivable.”
▪ Rose asked Jenny to tell Caroline “the truth about daddy”. Jenny
admits to not telling Caroline because the “truth about daddy”
would not have been Rose’ truth. How did Jenny’s “truth” likely
differ from Rose’ truth?

Forgiveness on the Silver Screen

My “Take-Away Value” for this session is ________________________
____________________________________________________________
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Note: … some take-away values of my own
▪ “Refusing to forgive the unforgivable is a choice.”
▪ “We need to honour our client’s choices as they choose not to forgive.”
▪ “Rose’ resistance to forgiving is the key to her resolution to not forgive.”
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Session Six …
A Theory of Forgiveness
 Quote:
▪ “Of all creatures that were made, he [man] is the most detestable. Of the
entire brood he is the only one – the solitary one that possesses malice. That is
the basest of all instincts, passions, vices … he is the only creature that
inflicts pain for sport, knowing it to be pain.”
Samuel Clemens in The Autobiography of Mark Twain
▪ “The essence of human existence lies in the stance [one] takes toward a fate
[that] cannot be changed … when we have been hurt by or have hurt others …
Retaliation and revenge is one option. Forgiveness of ourselves and others is
another. Whichever we choose, each of us must respond … by being
responsible … Forgiveness and the peace it brings, may be the most
responsible choice that we … can make.” Beverly Flanigan in Forgiving Yourself
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A Theory of Forgiveness
 We are social beings.
 We know and recognize just and fair behavior and practices.
 Our knowledge of justice is not consistently reflected in our behavior.
 We offend others and are offended by others.
 Every offense incurs a loss and a debt.
 Retributive Justice attends to the debt which the offender owes
society.
▪ The offender pays the debt to the court.
▪ When satisfied with the payment received the court cancels the debt owed.
▪ The offender is freed of his debt to society and thus justice is served.
“He who forgives takes upon himself the debt
of the injustice that has been done to him.
Forgiveness … always entails a sacrifice.”
Dag Hammarskjold (paraphrased)
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A Theory of Forgiveness cont’d
 Reparative Justice attends to the debt which is owed the offended.
▪ Most offenses cannot be assessed in compensatory terms.
 The offended has two options:
▪ Make the offender pay or
▪ Absorb and cancel the debt owed
 Forgiveness is the response to the loss and the debt owed.
 The Process of Forgiving:
▪ The offended recognizes and acknowledges an actual injustice.
▪ The offended chooses to withhold authentic resentment toward the
offender, rather than respond with justified retribution.
▪ The offended grieves the loss and cancels the debt which the offender
owes, thus acknowledging that justice has been done.

A Theory of Forgiveness
 Structured Exercise
▪ Perhaps the most frequent argument mounted against forgiveness
is that in addition to the original offense the offended person must
do all the work in the forgiving process. Yet, in spite of all the
suffering, after surveying all the costs many who have been
offended still choose to forgive.
▪ Be prepared to discuss [1] some of the benefits of cancelling the
debt and [2] some of the problems in making the offender pay.
 Take-Away Value
▪ The “Take-Away Value” for me in this session was ___________
_________________________________________________________.

Session Seven
 Stories …
The Sunflower by Simon Wiesenthal
▪ Structured Exercise:
▪ While imprisoned in a Nazi concentration camp, Simon Wiesenthal
was taken one day from his work detail to the bedside of Karl, a
dying member of the SS. Haunted by the crimes in which he had
participated the soldier wanted to confess to a Jew. Faced with
the choice between compassion and justice … Wiesenthal said
nothing. But even years after the war ended, he wondered if he
had done the right thing.
▪ What would you have done?

Stories … “The Sunflower”
 Simon Wiesenthal sits in silence as the German soldier Karl, speaks, “I am left
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here with my guilt.” He concluded at last, “In the last hours of my life you are
with me … I do not know who you are. I know only that you are a Jew and that
is enough.
“I know that what I have told you is terrible. In the long nights while I have
been waiting for death, time and time again, I have longed to talk about it to
a Jew and beg forgiveness from him. Only I didn’t know if there were any Jews
left … I know that what I am asking is almost too much for you, but without
your answer I cannot die in peace.”
------------------------------------------------------Questions to Ponder
What was Karl asking for? … absolution? … forgiveness? … reconciliation?
What was Simon’s dilemma?
What should he have done?

Stories …
 The Sunflower
▪ My “Take-Home Value” is __________________________________
________________________________________________________
------------------------------------------------------------------Note:
▪ Well over half of all the respondents at the symposium agreed
that Simon had done the right thing by not responding to Karl’s
request. Their reasons varied greatly.
▪ I’m wondering if Simon fulfilled Karl’ s purpose best as simply
being a silent witness of the atrocities. Perhaps this was the
essence of what Karl needed – he needed a Jew to hear him beg
for forgiveness. Simon’s verbal response may be over-rated.

Appendix
 Forgiveness Group Climate
▪ Meeting Five Basic Needs of Participants
▪ Belonging
 “I’m in a place where I want to be.” … “I’m in a place where I am wanted.”
▪ Trust
 “My word is good.” … “My promises matter.”… “I mean what I say, and do
what I say I will do.”… “I meet expectations.”
▪ Worth
 “I have dignity.” … “I am respected.” …“My words are taken into account.”
▪ Control
 “I can choose.” … “My choices matter.” …”My decisions count.”
▪ Safety
 “My boundaries work for me.” … “My life is reasonably predictable.”

Appendix
 Some Tips for Facilitators
▪ Keep group size small to facilitate maximum discussion time.
▪ Listen intently and actively – how you listen may be more important than
how you answer.
▪ Open-ended questions encourage expansion and a wider range of facts and
feelings.
▪ Summarize the participant’s contributions by noting common feelings and
themes.
▪ Set firm but gentle limits on participants who monopolize discussion.
▪ Long pauses of silence for reflection are characteristic and useful in small
group work.
▪ Model behaviors which encourage participants to respond to each other’s
contributions.

Appendix
 Practical Considerations
▪
▪
▪
▪
▪
▪
▪
Group Size – 6 to 12
Group Frequency – Weekly
Number of Sessions – 6 Weeks or Week-End
Session Length – 90 to 120 minutes
Homogeneous – Interest in forgiveness
Session Format – Repeated Weekly
Fee - $100 - $150 for six week or week-end

Appendix

Some Benefits of Forgiving
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Reduced Anger
Diminished Anxiety
Reduced Depression
Greater Self-Confidence
Increased Optimism and Hope
Less Preoccupation with Injustices
“Forgiveness is the economy of the heart …
Forgiveness saves the expense of anger,
The cost of hatred and the waste of spirits.”
Hannah Moore

Appendix
Outline of a Session
 Theme for the Session: For example “Cancelling the Debt”
 Quote of the Day: Quotes are effective cognitive organizers. They
encourage the participants to begin thinking about the theme.
 Structured Exercise: Which focuses on a practical dimension of the
theme.
 Take-Away Value: One thought, of significant value, which each
participant expresses to another before leaving the session. Also, the
‘Take-Away Value’ is a useful way of beginning the next session.

References:
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Allender, D.B. (1992). Bold love. Colorado Springs: NavPress
Atwood, M. (2008) Payback. Scarborough: HarperCollins
Augsburger, D. (1981) Caring enough to forgive. Ventura: Regal
Augsburger, D. (1988). The freedom of forgiveness. Chicago: Moody
Carter, L. (1997) The choosing to forgive workbook. Vancouver: Thomas Nelson
Chapman, G. (2007) Anger. Chicago: Northfield Publishing
Chapman, G. (2006) Five languages of apology. Chicago: Northfield Publishing
Davis, L. (2002) I thought we would never speak again. New York: HarperCollins
Derrida, J. (2003) On cosmopolitanism and forgiveness. New York: Routledge
Engel, B. (2001) The power of apology. Toronto: Wiley
Enright, R.D. (2000) Helping clients forgive. Washington D.C.: APA
Enright, R.D. (2007) Forgiveness is a choice. Washington D.C.: APA
Flanigan, B. (1994) Forgiving the unforgivable. New York: Macmillan
Flanigan, B. (1996) Forgiving yourself. New York: Wiley
Gladwell, M. (2013) David and Goliath. New York: Little Brown
Gough, E. (2000) Infidelity. New York: Avery
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References:
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Heavilin, M.W. (1988) December’s song. San Bernardino: Here’s Life
Holloway,R. (2002) On Forgiveness. Edinburgh: Canongate
Hunt, June. (2007) How to forgive. Eugene Oregon: Harvest House
Hunt, June. (2013) Forgiveness. The freedom to let go. Torrance, California: Aspire
Jeffress,R. (2000) When forgiveness doesn’t make sense. Colorado Springs: Waterbrook
Jones, L.G. (1995) Embodying Forgiveness. Grand Rapids: Erdmans
Keller, T. (2008) The reason for God. New York: Penguin
Luskin, F. (2002) Forgive for good. Sanfrancisco: Harper
McClafferty, C.K. (1995) Forgiving God. Grand Rapids: Discovery House
McCullough, M.E. (1997) To forgive is human. Downers Grove: Intervarsity
McCullough, M.E. (2000) Forgiveness. New York: Guilford
McCullough, M.E. (2008) Beyond Revenge. Sanfrancisco: Jossey-Bass
Monbourquette, J. (2000) How to forgive. Ottawa: Novalis
Morris, D. (1997) Forgiving the dead man walking. Grand Rapids: Zondervan
Nerburn, K. (2000) Calm surrender. Novato CA: New World Library
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References:
 Nouwen, H. (1994) The return of the prodigal son. New York: Bantom
 Sands, C. (1999) Learning to trust again. Grand Rapids: Discovery
 Santoro, J. (1997) The angry heart. New York: mjf
 Schneider, J.P. (1990) Sex, lies and forgiveness. New York: HarperCollins
 Sills, J. (2004) Excess baggage. New York: Penguin
 Simon, S. (1990) Forgiveness. New York: Warner
 Smedes, L.B. (1996) The art of forgiving. Nashville: Moorings
 Spring, J.A. (1996) After the affair. New York: HarperCollins
 Spring, J.A. (2004) How can I forgive you? New York: HarperCollins
 Stanley, C. (1991) The gift of forgiveness. Nashville: Thomas Nelson
 Stokes, G. (2002) Forgiveness. London: MQ Publications
 Stoop, D. (1991) Forgiving our parents forgiving ourselves. Ann Arbor: Servant
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References:
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Tipping, C. (2011) Radical self forgiveness. Boulder CO: Sounds True
Visser, M. (2002) Beyond fate. Toronto: House of Anansi
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“Forgiveness is not the same as pardon …
you may forgive someone and still insist on
a just punishment for that wrong.”
Lewis Smedes
“In a world of flawed communication
Community is possible through
Understanding others
-------------In a world of painful alienation
Community is created through
Accepting others
-------------In a world of broken trust
Community is sustained
By forgiveness
Augsburger
Daniel Klassen PhD
[email protected]

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