CENG 222 COMPUTER ORGANIZATION

Report
Spring 2012-2013
Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV
E-Mail
Phone
Hours
Class 4, 5, 6
Class 1, 2, 3
Office
Office
Office
Room
Class
Class
Office
2
: [email protected]
: +90 (312) 233 13 39
: Monday
: Tuesday
: Monday
: Wednesday
: Thursday
09:40 – 11:30
11:40 – 13:30
13:40 – 15:30
13:40 – 15:30
13:40 – 15:30
1, 2, 3 : L-A14
4, 5, 6 : L-A15
: L-220
CENG 222 - Spring 2012-2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV
•
Text Book:
 Structured Computer Organization, 5-th edition, Andrew S.
Tannenbaum, Prentice Hall, 2006
 Computer Organization and Embedded Systems, -th edition,
Carl Hamacher, Zvonko Vranesich, Safwat Zaky, McGraw Hill,
• Reference Material:
 Computer Organization and Architecture Designing for
Performance, 7-th edition, William Stallings, Prentice Hall, 2006
 Computer Organization and Architecture An Integrated
Approach, Miles Murdocca and Vincent Heuring, John Wiley &
Sons Inc., 2007
•
Course Web Page
 http://ceng222.cankaya.edu.tr
• Course Assistant
Faris Serdar Taşel
3
[email protected]
CENG 222 - Spring 2012-2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV
1. Attendance
2. Quizzes
3. Lab Work
4. Midterm
5%
15%
25%
20%
Will cover the concepts learned thus far. Closed books, notes, etc.
5. Final
35%
Will cover all the topics learned during the semester
Closed books, notes, etc.
Rules of the Game
Attend every class
Be on time
Pay attention during class
All work should be your own
Ask questions anytime, but raise your hand
Remember that the program language is English
Grades are earned, not given
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CENG 222 - Spring 2012-2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV
The Zeroth Generation
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CENG 222 - Spring 2012-2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV
The Zeroth Generation (1642-1945)
Blaise Pascal (1623 - 1662)
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A working calculator machine
was built in 1642.
It was entirely mechanical,
using gears.
Addition and subtraction only.
CENG 222 - Spring 2012-2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV
The Zeroth Generation (1642-1945)
Baron Gottfried Wilhelm von
Leibniz (1646 – 1716)
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Built thirty years after.
Arithmetic operations:
- Addition
- Subtraction
- Multiplication
- Division
It’s equivalent of fourfunction pocket calculator.
CENG 222 - Spring 2012-2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV
The Zeroth Generation (1642-1945)
Charles Babbage (1792 – 1871)
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Difference engine – could only
add and subtract.
Was designed to compute tables
of numbers useful for naval
navigation. The most
interesting feature was its
output method: it punched its
results into a cooper engraver’s
plate with a steel die.
CENG 222 - Spring 2012-2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV
The Zeroth Generation (1642-1945)
Analitycal Engine
and Punch Cards
The mill could accept operands
from the store, then process them,
and finally return the result to the
store.
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It had four components:
The Store (memory);
The mill (computation unit);
The Input Section (punched
card reader);
The output section (punched
and printed output);
Four arithmetic operations.
Store consists of 1000 words of
50 decimal digits.
It was general purpose.
CENG 222 - Spring 2012-2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV
The Zeroth Generation (1642-1945)
She was the world’s first
programmer.
The programming language Ada®
is named in her honor.
Ada Augusta Lovelace
(Daughter of the famed
British poet Lord George
Gordon Byron)
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CENG 222 - Spring 2012-2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV
The First Generation – Vacuum Tubes
(1945 – 1955)
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CENG 222 - Spring 2012-2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV
The First Generation – Vacuum Tubes (1945 – 1955)
ENIGMA – coder and encoder used by
Germany during World War II.
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First electronic computer COLOSSUS
(1943) was designed only to read decoded
messages from ENIGMA. (Alan Turing).
It was dead end computer.
CENG 222 - Spring 2012-2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV
COLOSSUS (1943)
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CENG 222 - Spring 2012-2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV
The First Generation – Vacuum Tubes (1945 – 1955)
ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer). It consisted of 18000 vacuum tubes and 1500
relays. Weighted 30 tons and consumed 1400 kW of power. Designed by John Mauchley and J. Presar
Eckert. Architecturally, the machine had 20 registers, each capable of holding a 10-digit decimal number.
ENIAC was programmed by setting up 6000 multiposition switches and connecting a multitude of sockets
with a variable forest of jumper cables. Project was finished at 1946.
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CENG 222 - Spring 2012-2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV
The First Generation – Vacuum Tubes (1945 – 1955)
EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer) known as machine were ideas of
von Neumann were realized.
Block diagram of the von Neumann architecture: MQ - multiplier quotient register; IR instruction register; IBR - instruction buffer register; MAR - memory address register;
MDR - memory data register.
The First Generation computers – experiments on hardware architecture.
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CENG 222 - Spring 2012-2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV
The First Generation – Vacuum Tubes (1945 – 1955)
First industrial computer IBM 701. The 701 had 2048 36-bit words memory with two
instructions per word. It was the first in a series of scientific machines that came to dominate
the industry within a decade. Three years later come 704, which initially had 4096 words of
core memory, 36-bit instructions and floating-point hardware.
In 1958, IBM began production of its last vacuum tube machine, the 709, which was basically
a beefed-up 704.
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CENG 222 - Spring 2012-2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV
The Second Generation – Transistors
(1955-1965)
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CENG 222 - Spring 2012-2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV
The Second Generation – Transistors (1955-1965)
In the late 40’s three American scientists
named William Shockley, John Bardeen
and Walter Brattain at Bell Labs,
announced the creation of the first
transistor.
The first transistorized computer was
built at M.I.T.’s Lincoln laboratory, a 16bit machine.
The most interesting computers were
produced by DEC (Digital Equipment
Corporation) and IBM (International
Business Machine)
The First transistor (1948)
For computers of this generation there
were designed many new peripheral
devices.
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CENG 222 - Spring 2012-2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV
The Second Generation – Transistors (1955-1965)
The PDP-8 is a 12 bit single
accumulator machine which can
address up to 32K 12 bit words. It has
8 basic instructions and the PDP-8/E
executes them in 1.2 microsecond for
simple instructions to 4 microsecond
for complex memory reference
instructions. This gives the machine
about a 0.5 MIPS rating.
DEC computer PDP-8
(1965)
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CENG 222 - Spring 2012-2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV
The Second Generation – Transistors (1955-1965)
(PDP-8 Peripheral Devices)
The RK05J Disk Drive is a removable media hard
drive with a total capacity of 1.6 million 12 bit
words.
The RX01/RX02 Disk Drive a removable media 8
inch floppy drive. The RX01 was the first
generation drive dating to around 1975. The
RX02 was a double capacity version around
1978. The RX02 double density drive stored
256k words or 512k bytes on a disk.
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CENG 222 - Spring 2012-2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV
The Second Generation – Transistors (1955-1965)
(PDP-8 Peripheral Devices)
The PC04 high speed paper tape reader/punch.
Paper tape was an inexpensive method for
storing and transferring data.
PDP-8
TU10 1/2" tape drive
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CENG 222 - Spring 2012-2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV
The Second Generation – Transistors (1955-1965)
(PDP-8 Peripheral Devices)
The VR14 is a X/Y display monitor.
Viewable Area 6.75 x 9 inches.
ASR 33 Teletype
Data Transfer Rate 10 characters per second,
110 baudl.
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CENG 222 - Spring 2012-2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV
The Second Generation – Transistors (1955-1965)
(IBM 1401)
IBM 1401 Data Processing System (1959). From the left: 1402 Card Read-Punch,
1401 Processing Unit, 1403 Parallel Printer.
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CENG 222 - Spring 2012-2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV
The Third Generation – Integrated Circuits
(1965-1980)
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CENG 222 - Spring 2012-2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV
The Third Generation – Integrated Circuits (1965-1980)
Nicknamed "the Mayor of Silicon Valley", cofounded Fairchild Semiconductor in 1957 and
Intel Corporation in 1968. He is also credited
(along with Jack Kilby) with the invention of
the integrated circuit or microchip which
fueled the personal computer revolution and
gave Silicon Valley its name.
In July 1959, he filed for U.S. Patent
2,981,877 "Semiconductor Device and Lead
Structure", a type of integrated circuit.
That was invention of the first integrated
circuit
Robert Norton Noyce
(December 12, 1927 – June 3, 1990)
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CENG 222 - Spring 2012-2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV
The Third Generation – Integrated Circuits (1965-1980)
IBM System/360. A family of computers.
Contrasting with at-the-time normal industry practice, IBM created an entire series of computers (or
CPUs) from small to large, low to high performance, all using the same instruction set (with two
exceptions for specific markets). This feat allowed customers to use a cheaper model and then
upgrade to larger systems as their needs increased without the time and expense of rewriting
software. IBM was the first manufacturer to exploit microcode technology to implement a
compatible range of computers of widely differing performance, although the largest, fastest, models
had hard-wired logic instead.
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CENG 222 - Spring 2012-2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV
The Third Generation – Integrated Circuits (1965-1980)
DEC PDP-11. A family of computers.
1971: The PDP-11/45 was an excellent computational tool for large multi-user, multi-task
installations. Through memory management, memory could be expanded to 128K, which included a
combination of bi-polar and MOS memory. Other features included a greatly expanded floating
point processor.
1975: The PDP-11/70 represented the high end of PDP-11 architecture with the capacity for supporting
the speed, addressing range and bandwidth required in large systems applications. It was the first
PDP-11 to use cache memory.
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CENG 222 - Spring 2012-2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV
The Third Generation – Integrated Circuits (1965-1980)
Development of Software 1
From its beginnings in the 1940s, writing software has evolved into a profession concerned
with how best to maximize the quality of software and of how to create it. Quality can refer to
how maintainable software is, to its stability, speed, usability, testability, readability, size, cost,
security, and number of flaws or "bugs", as well as to less measurable qualities like elegance,
conciseness, and customer satisfaction, among many other attributes.
Computer hardware was application-specific. Scientific and business tasks needed different
machines. Due to the need to frequently translate old software to meet the needs of new
machines, high-order languages like FORTRAN, COBOL, and ALGOL were developed.
Hardware vendors gave away systems software for free as hardware could not be sold without
software. A few companies sold the service of building custom software but no software
companies were selling packaged software.
Totally were designed more than 100 different high-order languages, but now only few of them
are in use.
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CENG 222 - Spring 2012-2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV
The Third Generation – Integrated Circuits (1965-1980)
Development of Software 2
An operating system (OS) is a collection of software that manages computer hardware
resources and provides common services for computer programs. The operating system is a
vital component of the system software in a computer system. Application programs usually
require an operating system to function.
Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may also
include accounting for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage, printing, and other
resources.
Examples of popular modern operating systems include Android, BSD, iOS, Linux, Mac OS X,
Microsoft Windows, Windows Phone, and IBM z/OS. All these, except Windows and z/OS,
share roots in UNIX.
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CENG 222 - Spring 2012-2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV
The Fourth Generation – Very Large Scale Integration
(1980 - ?)
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CENG 222 - Spring 2012-2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV
The Fourth Generation – Very Large Scale Integration
Microprocessor
A microprocessor incorporates the functions of a computer's central processing unit
(CPU) on a single integrated circuit (IC), or at most a few integrated circuits. It is a
multipurpose, programmable device that accepts digital data as input, processes it according
to instructions stored in its memory, and provides results as output. It is an example of
sequential digital logic, as it has internal memory. Microprocessors operate on numbers and
symbols represented in the binary numeral system.
The advent of low-cost computers on integrated circuits has transformed modern
society. General-purpose microprocessors in personal computers are used for computation,
text editing, multimedia display, and communication over the Internet. Many more
microprocessors are part of embedded systems, providing digital control of a myriad of objects
from appliances to automobiles to cellular phones and industrial process control.
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CENG 222 - Spring 2012-2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV
The Fourth Generation – Very Large Scale Integration
Milestones of the microprocessors
Intel 4004 – bit-slice 4-bit microprocessor (1971).
Intel 8080 – 8-bit microprocessor (1974).
Intel 8088 – 16-bit microprocessor (1979). The base of first Personal Computer
.......
Pentium – 32-bit microprocessor (1993).
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CENG 222 - Spring 2012-2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV
The Fourth Generation – Very Large Scale Integration
RFID Chips
RFID stands for Radio-Frequency IDentification. The acronym refers to small electronic
devices that consist of a small chip and an antenna. The chip typically is capable of carrying
2,000 bytes of data or less.
The RFID device serves the same purpose as a bar code or a magnetic strip on the back of a
credit card or ATM card; it provides a unique identifier for that object. And, just as a bar code or
magnetic strip must be scanned to get the information, the RFID device must be scanned to
retrieve the identifying information.
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CENG 222 - Spring 2012-2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV
History of Computer Designing
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CENG 222 - Spring 2012-2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV
Computers in the USSR
First generation Soviet computer MESM (Small Electronic Computing Machine) was designed
by S. Lebedev in Kiev (1951). 6000 vacuum tubes.
Clocking frequency – 50 kHz; rating – 50 op/sec; 16-bit; RAM memory 32 data words, 64
instruction words.
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CENG 222 - Spring 2012-2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV
Computers in the USSR
BESM (Big Electronic Computing Machine)
(1952)
First generation Soviet computer BESM was designed
by S. Lebedev in Moskov (1952). 5000 vacuum tubes.
Clocking frequency – 100 kHz; rating – 10 000 op/sec;
39-bit floating point ALU; RAM memory 32 data
words, 64 instruction words.
External memory – magnetic drum 1024 words,
magnetic tape 120 000 words
Then were manufactory produced models BESM-2,
and versions for military applications M-40, M-50
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CENG 222 - Spring 2012-2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV
Computers in the USSR
BESM-6
(Big Electronic
Computing Machine)
(1965)
Second generation Soviet computer BESM -6.
Rate 1 MIPS. 48-bit registers and ALU. Address
bus 15 bit. Clock frequency 10 MHz.
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CENG 222 - Spring 2012-2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV
Computers in the USSR
MIR-2 (Machine for Engineering Computations)
(1969). 12 000 op/sec. RAM – 8000 13-bit words.
ROM 1,6x106 bit.
Promin (Beam)
(1963)
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CENG 222 - Spring 2012-2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV
Computers in the USSR
SETUN the unique computer that work in system of base three (1959-1970).
Density of information is described by equation
where X – base of
the system. The optimal base is constant e = 2,718281828459045.
Trite – name of the digit in this system.
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CENG 222 - Spring 2012-2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV
Computers in the USSR
Soviet military super computer 5Э53 – designed for anti-missile defense system A-35 (19671972). Work in residue number system. Rate 40 MIPS. Clocking frequency 6 MHz. RAM 10
Mbit. ROM 2,9 Mbit. External memory 3 Gbit. Harvard architecture. Pipelined arithmetic.
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CENG 222 - Spring 2012-2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV
Computers in Russia
Russian supercomputer “Lomonosov” (2009). 6654 computing nodes, 94000 cores, rate
1,37 pico flops.
June 2011 – 13 position on Top500 of the most powerful computers all over the world.
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CENG 222 - Spring 2012-2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV
Computers in Russia
Russian microprocessor ELBRUS (ExpLicit Basic Resources Utilization Scheduling) (2010).
64 бита — 4,0 GFLOPS, 32 бита — 8,0 GFLOPS, 4 cores for DSP, 2 processor cores…
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CENG 222 - Spring 2012-2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV

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