Modelling Protein Synthesis Jessie Maher In this experiment, we produced a simple model of a section of DNA, and modelled the processes involved in protein synthesis from the information in DNA. Introduction about DNA • Dna molecule is a double stranded helix, made up of repeating subunits called nucleotides. • - Each nucleotide is made up of: A cylic sugar A phosphate group A nitrogen base • - The four bases are: Adenine Guanine Cytosine Thymine • Alternate sugars and phosphates make the sides and the bases connect to the sugars making a the rungs like on a ladder. • Sequence of bases along DNA strand is the gene, gene contains information needed to make a protein. Introduction about Protein Synthesis • Information about the number, type and sequence of amino acids that make up polypeptides of protein molecule is found on the DNA strand ( code form ). • Genetic code- sequence of the bases along DNA strand. • Codon- 3 bases, the codon codes for one amino acid. • The two processes that use information from the DNA for synthesis of protein: - Transcription - Translation • RNA exists in the forms: - Messenger RNA ( mRNA ) is made in the nucleus, copies a series of bases from DNA and takes this message to a ribosome. - Transfer RNA (tRNA) transfers amino acids to ribosome from the cytoplasm. The Experiment EQUIPMENT • 42 tooth picks ( bonds between the chemicals ) • 18 milk bottles cut in half (36 halves) – ( sugar ) • 18 raspberries (36 halves) ( phosphate units ) • 25 jelly beans halved (5 each of 5 colours) ( bases ) - Purple: A - Yellow: T - Blue: C - Green: G • 4 different jelly snakes 6cm long ( amino acids ) • A4 white paper ( a cell ) • Coloured paper circle, 6cm diameter (a ribosome ) • Clean sharp knife • Cutting board • Gloves • Scissors • Marking pen • Heinemann Biology textbook DNA, positioned in the nucleus of a cell. Protein Synthesis: STEP 1- Transcription • Transcription is the process where the information on the DNA is copied onto an RNA molecule. •Gene length of the DNA has unwinded. • The gene contains the information about the protein that is being made. • We are making RNA here, RNA has the base Uracil ( black jelly bean ) where the thymine ( yellow jelly bean ) is in DNA. • RNA polymerase moves along the strand linking complementary RNA nucleotides to form a mRNA strand. • The mRNA strands length is controlled by start codon ( codon AUG ) and the stop codon ( either UAA, AUG or UGA ). • The mRNA strand is modified, it contains only the base sequence that codes for the protein, most genes contain introns ( non-coding regions ). The region that codes for the protein are exons. The introns cut from the strand, and exons join. •The m-RNA now moves into the cytoplasm ( out of the nucleus ). STEP 2: ACTIVATION OF AMINO ACIDS • Activation of amino acids- an enzyme attaches amino acids ( snake ) to its specific triplet codons of t-RNA in the cytoplasm. • The m-RNA is moving out of the nucleus into the cytoplasm. STEP 3: TRANSLATION • Translation is the process where the information now on the RNA molecule is used to make a new polypeptide chain. • mRNA strand binds to a ribosome at the end with the start codon. (Ribosome's act as site for polypeptide synthesis ) •A tRNA carrying the amino acid methionine and anticodon (UAC) binds to mRNA start codon within the ribosome. • Another tRNA binds to the next codonits amino acid links with a polypeptide bond to first amino acid. Triplet codon of tRNA • First t-RNA is released from ribosome and the ribosome moves along the m-RNA strand, two tRNAs at a time are temporarily bound within ribosome and the amino acids link making polypeptide chain. • Once one of the stop codons are reached the polypeptide chain is released into cytoplasm, each protein has a certain shape made from the twisting/folding of polypeptide chain or joining to another to make certain protein.