Basic SAR Theory Search planning

Report
SITREP
International Search And Rescue Training
SITREP
REF:
IAMSAR Vol. III.
OSC to SMC/MRCC: pages 3-8 to 3-10
SMC/MRCC: Appendix D
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Sequential numbers.
First SITREP in short form, (if information is not available)
If time permits, use full form.
Further information: Send only new info.
“No change”- SITREP (Prolonged operations):
Send SITREP every 3 hrs.
6. On conclusion: Final SITREP.
International Search And Rescue Training
IMO SITREP
SITREP
Transmission Priority:
From:
To:
BT
SAR SITREP Number:
A.IDENTITY OF CASUALTY
B.POSITION
C.SITUATION
D.NUMBER OF PERSONS AT RISK
E.ASSISTANCE REQUIRED
F.COORDINATING JRCC/MRCC
G.DISCRIPTION OF CACUALTY
H.WEATHER ON SCENE
J.INITIAL ACTION TAKEN
K.SEARCH AREA
L.COORDINATION INSTRUCTIONS
M.FUTURE PLANS
N.ADDITIONAL
INFORMATION/CONCLUSION
BT
International Search And Rescue Training
SITREP
P
FM
TO
INFO
BT
UNCLASSIFIED
SUBJ:EMERGENCY PHASE; SITREP #; NAME/DESCRIPTION OF SUBJECT OF
INCIDENT; ABBREVIATED NATURE OF DISTRESS; GENERAL GEOGRAPHIC
LOCATION
A.
IDENTITY OF CASUALTY. (Name/Call sign, flag State)
B.
POSITION. (Latitude/longitude)
C.
SITUATION. (Nature of distress. Fire, collision, sinking, medico)
D.
NUMBER OF PERSONS.
E.
ASSISTENCE REQUIRED
F.
COORDINATING RCC
G.
DESCRIPTION OF CASUALTY.
H.
WEATHER ON SCENE.
J.
INITIAL ACTION TAKEN.
K.
SEARCH AREA.
L.
COORDINATING INSTRUCTIONS
M.
FUTURE PLANS
N.
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
BT
International Search And Rescue Training
DEFINING THE SEARCH AREA
International Search And Rescue Training
DEFINING THE SEARCH AREA
(Corner coordinates)
A. 55°45,5 N 014°50,4 E
D. 55°40,5 N 014°50,4 E
B. 55°45,5 N 015°40,2 E
C. 55°40,5 N 015°40,2 E
6
DEFINING THE SEARCH AREA
(Limitations N-S/E-W)
55°45,5 N
014°50,4 E
015°40,2 E
55°40,5 N
7
DEFINING THE SEARCH AREA
(What if?)
8
DEFINING THE SEARCH AREA
(Combination)
A. 55°45,5 N 014°50,4 E
North and west of xxxxxx
South and west of xxxxxx
D. 55°40,5 N 014°50,4 E
B. 55°45,5 N 015°40,2 E
North and East of xxxxxx
South and East of xxxxxx
C. 55°40,5 N 015°40,2 E
9
DEFINING THE SEARCH AREA
(Rapid way to define search informations)
1. Define DATUM position.
LAT/LONG
2. Define radius for Search Area
3. Draw Search Area
4. Define CSP.
5. Define search pattern and
trackspacing (S)
55°45,5 N 014°50,4 E
10
DEFINING THE SEARCH AREA
(Search informations)
S
CSP
1. Define search area
2. Define CSP
3. Define searchpattern to be used
4. Define Leg direction
5. Define Leg Length
6. Define First turn (Right/left)
7. Define Creeping Direction
8. Define track spacing (S)
SEARCH PATTERNS
International Search And Rescue Training
CHOICE OF SEARCH PATTERN
FACTORS EFFECTING THE CHOICE OF SEARCH PATTERN:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
The accuracy of the last known position (LKP)
Navigational errors on board the SRU
The searched object
Actual weather in the search area
Drift direction and speed of the serched target
Time awailable for the search
Time of the day (day/night)
Endurance of the SRU
SEARCH PATTERNS
VISUAL SEARCH
•
•
•
•
•
•
EXPANDING SQUARE SEARCH (SS)
SECTOR PATTERN (VS)
TRACK LINE SEARCH, RETURN (TSR)
TRACK LINE SEARCH, NON RETURN (TSN)
PARALLEL SWEEP SEARCH (PS)
CREEPING LINE SEARCH (CSC)
EXPANDING SQUARE SEARCH (SS)
EXPANDING SQUARE SEARCH (SS)
• Most effective when the location of the search object is known
within relatively close limits.
• The commence search point is always the datum position.
• Often appropriate for vessels or small boats to use when
searching for persons in the water or other search objects with
little or no leeway.
• Due to the small area involved, this procedure must not be
used simultaneously by multiple aircraft at similar altitudes or
by multiple vessels.
• Accurate navigation is required; the first leg is usually oriented
directly into the wind to minimize navigational errors.
• It is difficult for fixed-wing aircraft to fly legs close to datum if S
is less than 2 NM.
EXPANDING SQUARE SEARCH (SS)
(2 SRU at the same time)
SECTOR SEARCH (VS)
SECTOR PATTERN (VS)
• Most effective when the position of the search object is
accurately known and the search area is small.
• Used to search a circular area centered on a datum point.
• Due to the small area involved, this procedure must not be
used simultaneously by multiple aircraft at similar
altitudes or by multiple vessels.
• An aircraft and a vessel may be used together to perform
independent sector searches of the same area.
• A suitable marker (for example, a smoke float or a radio
beacon) may be dropped at the datum position, and used
as a reference or navigational aid marking the centre of
the pattern.
• For aircraft, the search pattern radius is usually between 5
NM and 20 NM.
• For vessels, the search pattern radius is usually between 2
NM and 5 NM, and each turn is 120°, normally turned to
starboard.
TRACK LINE SEARCH, RETURN
(TSR)
TRACK LINE SEARCH, RETURN
(TSR)
• Normally used when an aircraft or vessel has disappeared
without a trace along a known route.
• Often used as initial search effort due to ease of planning and
implementation
• Consist of a rapid and reasonably thorough search along
intended route of the distressed craft.
• Search may be along one side of the track line and return in
opposite direction on the other side (TSR).
• Search may be along the intended track and once on each side,
then search facility continues on its way and does not return
(TSN).
• Aircraft are frequently used for TS due to their high speed.
• Aircraft search height usually 300 m to 600 m (1000 ft to 3000 ft)
during daylight or 600 m to 900 m (2000 ft to 3000 ft) at night.
TRACK LINE SEARCH, NON
RETURN (TSN)
PARALLEL SWEEP SEARCH (PS)
PARALLEL SWEEP SEARCH (PS)
• Used to search a large area when survivor
location is uncertain
• Most effective over water or flat terrain.
• Usually used when a large area must be divided
into sub-areas for assignment to individual
search facilities on-scene at same time.
• The commence search point is in one corner of
the sub-area, one-half track space inside the
rectangle from each of the two sides forming the
corner.
• Search legs are parallel to each other and to the
long sides of the sub-area.
CREEPING LINE SEARCH (CSC)
DRIFT
CREEPING LINE SEARCH (CSC)
• Search area is long and narrow.
• The most likely position of the target
is assumed to be between two
points.
• A speedy coverage of the most likely
area is given first priority, the next
step is to move on to the next search
legs in another area.
DIVERTING VESSELS
EFFORT ALLOCATION
(Allocation of Search And Rescue Units in search area)
Real driftdirection of search object
1
CSP
EFFORT ALLOCATION
(Allocation of Search And Rescue Units in search area)
Real driftdirection of search object
1
CSP
EFFORT ALLOCATION
(Allocation of Search And Rescue Units in search area)
Real driftdirection of search object
1
CSP
EFFORT ALLOCATION
(Allocation of Search And Rescue Units in search area)
Real driftdirection of search object
1
CSP
EFFORT ALLOCATION
(Allocation of Search And Rescue Units in search area)
CSP
CSP
CSP
CSP
EFFORT ALLOCATION
(Allocation of Search And Rescue Units in search area)
CSP
CSP
CSP
CSP
EFFORT ALLOCATION
(Allocation of Search And Rescue Units in search area)
Big search areas/few SRU´s
CSP
CSP
CSP
CSP
?
International Search And Rescue Training
35

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