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Tatau pē Equality and Talanoa
Tongan Oral Culture
Dr Amelia Afuha’amngoTuipulotu
Supervisors:
A/Professor Maureen Boughton
Professor Jill White
The University of Sydney
Kano’i Lea
Content Overview
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Background
Global and Tongan Contexts
The Research Approach
Research in Process
3 Foundational Elements for Nursing Practice:
Challenges and Enablers
Tatau pē Equality and Talanoa Tongan Oral Culture
The Future of Nursing and Midwifery Practice- Where to
from here?
Holomui ki mu’a
Background
1.
2.
Personal
Philosophical
a. Contrasting
Nursing
Experiences
Stance
Socrates Philosophy
“I only know that
I know Nothing”
b. Externally
driven
Projects
Holomui ki mu’a Background
Purpose of the Study
To explore and identify collaboratively
with Tongan nurses the foundational
elements that will underpin the
implementation of standards for nursing
practice in Tonga
Holomui ki mu’a Background
Significance of the Study
1. Gaining insights and understanding:
enablers and challenges
2. Identification of Context-specific
foundational elements for standards:
to inform future development of
standards
3. “Bottom up” Approach
Competency
Standards in the
Global Context
Western World
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
Challenges
Why competency standards (CS) emerged?
Other Conceptualisations surrounding CS
Analysis of Professional CS
Critiques of CS
Gaps in the Literature
The Tongan Context
The Four Strands for Development:
The Kafa Pekepeka
a.
b.
c.
d.
Cultural Influences
Economic situation
Political Influence
Geographical Influence
The Research
Approach
a. Constructivism Paradigm: multiples,
constructed, context-specific
b. Influences from Action Research
Perspective: participation, collaboration,
reflection, investigation, reflective cycles
c. Data Analysis Frameworks: Thorne (1997),
Sandelowski (2000)-Braun & Clarke (2006):
6 Phases-1.familiarizing, 2.coding,
3.searching for themes, 4.reviewing themes,
5.defining themes, 6.reporting
Research Process
Group meeting 1
4 focus groups with all 10 coresearchers
Group meeting 2
Group meeting 3
Group meeting 4
Community
Clinical
Community
Clinical
Community
Clinical
10 co-researchers divided into
two groups
6 focus groups with 5 coresearchers in each
List of Broad Themes Emerged
Endorsement Cycles
Focus Group
(10 co-researchers)
Nursing Profession
Final meeting with group of coresearchers
Nursing leaders
Community nurses
School of Nursing
Clinical nurses
Retired nurses
Nurses in the outer islands
3 Foundational Elements:
Challenges and Enablers
3 Ike wooden mallet
1. Patient Care Management
2. Professional Comportment and
Development
3. Resource Management
1. Tokangaekina ‘a e Mo’ui ‘a e
Kakai
Patient Care Management
a. Communication: Patients, Leaders,
Doctors
b. Quality and Safety: Practice, Workforce
adequacy, Supervision, Competence
Assessment
1. Nurses’ Level of Knowledge
2. Attitudes of all
3. Work overload
4. Supervision of Practice
2. ‘Ulungaanga moe Tupulekina
Fakapolofesinale
Professional Comportment and
Development
1
‘Ulungaanga
Attitudes
2
Ngaahi Vaa
Relationships
3
Tupulekina
Professional
Development
1. Nurses’ Level of Knowledge
2. Nurses’ willingness to listen and show restrain
3. Lack of ongoing development, supervision, structure
4. Attitudes of all
3. Tokangaekina ‘o e Ngaahi
Naunau Fakangaue Resource
Management
1. Understanding Scarcity of basic Resources – a Reality
2. Fakapotopoto mo Fakama’opo’opo –Tongan
economic strategy
3. Fetokoni’aki mo Fevahevahe’aki –Tongan Communal
sharing
1. Lack of understanding
2. Nurses’ level of knowledge
3. Lack of maintenance
4. Attitudes of all
Ngaahi Poupou
Enablers for Nursing Practice
1. Encouraging Talanoa Tongan oral culture
2. Ongoing development
3. Embracing good attitudes
4. Building Va Relationships
5. Empowering one another
6. Structures in Place
7. Safe Nurse-Patient Workload
8. Ensuring Basic Resources are Place
9. Kau Katoa Everyone Caring for Resources
Tatau pe Equality &
Talanoa Tongan Oral Culture:
The two Strands
Respect
Inclusiveness
Recognition
Empowerment
Equal treatment
Tongan Hierarchical Society
All stakeholders; patients, nurses and leaders are equal in relation to respect,
inclusiveness, recognition, empowerment and treatment despite their individual status
within the Tongan hierarchical society.
Leaders
Nurses
Patients
Tatau pē Equality
Talanoa Tongan Oral Culture
Nurses
Patients
Nurses
Patients
Increasing Talanoa
Leaders
Leaders
A
B
Increasing Talanoa from A to B will lead to stakeholders coming closer together
Koe Luva atu Our Me’a’ofa Gift
Siueli ‘o Tonga Motu’a
Tongan Concepts
1. Pukepuke ‘a Fufula Nurturing the
Priceless
2. Hoko e Fau moe Fau Excellence
woven into Excellence
3. Alai-sia-alai-Kolonga
Ambidextrousness of Talent and
Performance
The Future of Nursing and Midwiferywhere are we heading?
1.
2.
3.
4.
Leadership
Regulation (and Accreditation)
Workforce Development
Innovation/ Relevance in Education and
Practice
5. Working Together: The Responsibility of
All-Local, Regional and Global Contexts
Sosaieti ma’ui’ui matala ‘alaha ‘i Onopooni
A fertile society blossoming into the Modern
World
First International Conference for Tongan Nurses, 2010
Leveleva e Malanga
Tu’a ‘Ofa atu

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