Multiple Choice & Essay Essay- first draft response to a given prompt; the goal is to assess your ability to develop and express ideas. Develop a point of view, presents ideas logically and clearly, and uses precise language. Multiple-choice- recognize sentence errors, choose best version of writing, improve paragraphs 49 questions on grammar and usage. DON’T ask you to define or use grammatical terms. DON’T test spelling or capitalization. DO have you choose the best answer based on clarity, correct grammar Goal: to write with clarity and thought out ideas To write better you have to write more. To write better you have to read more. When you read challenging material, to more you’ll be exposed to interesting and provocative ideas and to varied use of language. Characteristics: Consistency ◦ Sequence of tenses (After he broke his arm, he is home for two weeks.) ◦ Shift of pronoun (If you are tense, one should try to relax.) ◦ Parallelism (The carpenter showed us how to sink the nails, how to varnish the wood, and getting a smooth surface was also demonstrated.) ◦ Subject-verb agreement (There is eight people on shore.) Logical expression of ideas: ◦ Coordination and subordination (Nancy has a rash, and she is probably allergic to something.) ◦ Logical comparison (Harry grew more vegetables than his neighbor’s garden.) ◦ Modification and word order (Barking loudly, the tree had the dog’s leash wrapped around it.) Clarity and Precision: ◦ Ambiguous and vague pronouns (In the newspaper they say that few people voted.) ◦ Diction (He circumvented the globe on his trip.) ◦ Wordiness (There are many problems in the contemporary world in which we live.) ◦ Missing subject (If your car is parked here while not eating in the restaurant, it will be towed away.) ◦ Weak passive verbs (When you bake a cake, the oven should be preheated.) Appropriate Use of Conventions: ◦ Adjective and adverb confusion (His friends agree that he drives reckless.) ◦ Pronoun case (He sat between you and I at the stadium.) ◦ Idiom (Natalie had a different opinion towards her.) ◦ Comparison of modifiers (Of the 16 executives, Meg makes more money.) ◦ Sentence fragment (Whether or not the answer seems correct.) ◦ Comma splice or fused sentence (Shawna enjoys puzzles, she works on one everyday.) Read each sentence quickly and carefully. Read aloud during practice at home. Look for the most common mistakes people make in grammar: subject/verb agreement, adjective/adverb confusion. Look for errors in an idiom (words or phrases that are particular to our language because of what they mean when used together) Ex/talk behind someone’s back; not on someone’s back Verb forms that function as adjectives. In the present tense, participles always end in –ing (laughing, falling, gusting). Present participles In the past tense, participles often end in –ed, -en, or –t (cooked, broken, spent, lost); some are irregular (bought, wrung) Ex/Raw vegetables are more nutritious than cooked ones. Group of words that begins with a participle. The entire phrase is an adjective used to modify a noun. Fix this: Tourists see statues of many famous patriots walking along Boston’s Freedom Trail. What appears to be walking? Tourists walking along Boston’s Freedom Trail see statues of many famous patriots. 1. I thought I heard a strange rattle driving my car. 2. Strumming on his guitar, we suddenly remembered where we had seen this folk singer before. 3. I turned the corner and bumped into an elderly man paying no attention to where I was going. 4. The caterer served refreshments to the guests wearing a frilly white apron. 5. Orbiting between Mars and Jupiter, research astronomers discovered a new group of asteroids. 6. I saw a long line of traffic looking both ways before I tried to cross the street. 7. Raised in an open field without any pesticides, I prefer vegetables and fruits. 8. Cooked too long, she thought the pasta did not taste good anymore. 9. Spiced with Italian herbs, I had never tasted anything quite like Imelda’s salad. 10. Wrapped in brightly colored paper, Matt tore open the birthday present. Careful and close reading is key! Focus: the ability to recognize and write clear, effective, accurate sentences. Many questions deal with compound or complex sentences. Compound sentence- has two or more independent clauses but no subordinate clause. Shelley was born in England, but he died in Italy. Complex sentence- contains one independent clause and one or more subordinate clauses. Although sailors encountered Shelley’s boat in a storm, Shelley refused their offer to go on board. Using similar structures in a series. Creates balance in a sentence. Ex/ Hawaii is famous for its beautiful beaches, and Montana is well known for its majestic mountains. Hawaii, Montana are the subjects. Both described with adjectives – famous/well known Both have a prepositional phrase that tells us for what they are famous/well known. Sharon wanted to have the party at her house on Saturday night rather than in a restaurant on Sunday afternoon. How is this balanced? Always try to balance a word with a word, a phrase with a phrase, a clause with a clause. 1. On a hot day, I like swimming or to sit in the shade. 2. The message was short, quiet, and what I couldn’t understand. 3. I want to know when you are going to be home, where you will be if I need to call you, and the kind of transportation you are going to use to get there. 4. A teacher needs patience and to be aware. 5. I decided to buy the gift whether the store took credit cards or even making me pay cash. 6. The legislature should approve the budget and can lower taxes if possible. 7. The movie was not entertaining or a pleasant experience. 8. She is hoping for a career in medicine, law, or to be an engineer. 9. I try to be honest, hardworking, and to pay attention to my friends. 10. The produce in that store is fresh, well displayed, and costs too much.