Period 4: 1800 – 1848
APUSH Review: Key
Concept 4.3
Everything You Need To Know About Key
Concept 4.3 To Succeed In APUSH
The New Curriculum
Key Concept 4.3 “US interest in increasing
foreign trade, expanding its national
borders, and isolating itself from European
conflicts shaped the nation’s foreign policy
and spurred government and private
◦ Page 42 of the Curriculum Framework
Big ideas:
◦ How did the US increase its control of North
◦ How did both the North and South oppose the
power of the federal government?
◦ How was slavery seen as a divisive issue during
this time?
Key Concept 4.3 I
“Struggling to create an independent global presence, US policymakers sought to dominate the
North American continent and to promote its foreign trade.” – pg 42 of the curriculum
After the Louisiana Purchase, the US began to
expand trade and contact beyond its borders:
◦ Oregon border: US and Canada eventually settled on the
49th parallel
◦ Annexing Texas: After Texas declared independence, the
US added Texas in 1845 (debates over slavery)
◦ Trading with China: Treaty of Wanghia (1844) improved
trading rights for US in China
US sought to dominate North America through
military, judicial actions, and diplomatic efforts:
◦ Monroe Doctrine: Warned Europe to stay out of Latin
America, in return US would stay out of European affairs
◦ Webster-Ashburton Treaty: helped resolve the
Maine/Canada boundary dispute (Aroostook War)
Key Concept 4.3 II
“Various American groups and individuals initiated, championed, and/or resisted the expansion of territory
and/or government powers.” – pg 42 of the curriculum framework
Debates raised over expansion and incorporation of new
◦ Slave vs. non-slave areas (Missouri Compromise – desire to
balance the number of slave and free states)
 Northern and Southern States resisted the authority of the
federal government
◦ Hartford Convention: New England reaction to the War of
1812 and embargoes against Britain (Federalists)
◦ Nullification Crisis: Southern reaction to high tariffs (South
Carolina Exposition and Protest)
 Those living on the frontier advocated expansion
◦ Warhawks during War of 1812 – Henry Clay
◦ After War of 1812, Natives on the frontier were less of a
threat -> pushed further west
 Native American conflicts and federal efforts to control Natives
◦ Indian Removal Act – supported by Southerners, pushed
Natives west of the Mississippi River
 Trail of Tears (1837) – forced removal west of Mississippi
◦ Seminole Wars – series of wars with Natives in Florida
Key Concept 4.3 III
Source: Thomas Jefferson to John
 “The American acquisition of lands in the West gave rise to a contest over the extension
22, 1820
of slavery into
the western
territories as well as a series of attempts at national
compromise.” – pg 43 of the curriculum framework
[T]his momentous question, like a firebell in
the night, awakened and filled me with terror.
I considered it, at once as the [death] knell
of the Union. It is hushed, indeed, for the
But this
a reprieve
only, MO
not a = slave, 36º30’
◦ 3 parts
= free,
final sentence. A geographical line, coinciding
◦ Thomas
a marked principle,
moral and
political,of the effects
once conceived and held up to the angry
◦ MO Compromise was later overturned by
passions of men, will never be obliterated;
and every
new irritationKansas”
will mark it deeper
> “Bleeding
and deeper.
Missouri Compromise had short term success,
but eventually broke down
KS-NB Act -
Slavery expanded to the Southwest ->
increased tensions and debates over national
goals, priorities, and strategies
Test Tips
Multiple-Choice and Short Answer
States vs. federal government tensions
US increasing its power in North America
Expansion and Native Americans
Missouri Compromise
Essay Questions:
Good luck in May!
◦ Ways that regions resisted the power of the federal
◦ Impacts of expansion (politically, socially,
economically) on America and various groups
◦ Missouri Compromise (as part of other compromises
leading to Civil War)
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