Creating Whole Communities by Todd Swanstrom Des Lee

Report
Creating Whole Communities
LISC’S 2nd Community Development Symposium
Whole Neighborhoods … One Milwaukee
October 26, 2013
Todd Swanstrom
Des Lee Professor of Community
Collaboration and Public Policy
Administration
University of Missouri-St. Louis
National Economic Trends: Rising Inequality
Rising Inequality Across Space
Percentage Change in Median Household Income,
1979-2010 (adjusted for inflation)
Rising Poverty
Poverty Rate, All of Metro Milwaukee and City of
Milwaukee, 1979-2010
Rising Concentrated Poverty
Ratio of Growth in Housing Units to
Growth in Households, 1990-2000
7. St. Louis 1.70
15. Milwaukee 1.39
Older Neighborhoods Are Running Up the Down Escalator
What Can Community Development Do in
the Face of National and Regional Trends?
1. Build Mixed-Income Communities Through AssetBased Community Development
2. Connect Low-Income Residents to Regional
Opportunity Structures
3. Link Place-Based Initiatives to People-Based Services
I. Building Mixed-Income Communities
Through Asset-Based Community
Development
Problems
Deficits
Assets
Opportunities
Opportunity: Changing Demographics and Demand for Housing
Persons Over Age 65, EWG Region
Population Divided by Household, EWG Region
Married Couple Households w ith Children, EWG Region
400,000
300,000
3.00
250,000
2.50
200,000
2.00
150,000
1.50
350,000
300,000
250,000
200,000
150,000
More Elderly
100,000
100,000
Fewer "Ozzie & Harriet"
Families
50,000
50,000
0
1980
1990
2000
2009
1.00
Smaller households
0.50
0.00
0
1980
1990
2000
2009
1980
1990
2000
2009
Competitive Advantage of Older Urban
Neighborhoods
Most Walkable Neighborhoods in the City of Milwaukee
Walk
Northpoin Score
t
92
Populatio
n
3,571
2
Murray
Hill
92
5,593
3
Juneau
Town
90
4,533
4
Lower
East Side
89
11,412
5
Kilbourn
Town
88
3,958
1
Central West End in St. Louis
Vacant Housing Units as a Percent of All Units: 1970-2010
25%
20%
15%
Central West
End
St. Louis City
10%
5%
Source: US Census Bureau
0%
1970
1980
1990
2000
2010
Change in Median Housing Values: 1970-2010
$300,000
$250,000
$200,000
Central West End
St. Louis City
$150,000
$100,000
$50,000
Source: US Census Bureau
$0
1970
1980
1990
2000
2010
Distribution of Population by Age: Central West End vs St. Louis City 2010
60.00%
50.00%
40.00%
Central West
End
St. Louis City
30.00%
20.00%
10.00%
0.00%
Under 18 years
18 to 34 years
35 to 64 years
65 and over
Source: US Census Bureau
What Explains Success
of Central West End?
1. Connectivity
2. Amenities
3. Anchor Institutions
But Is the Central West End a
Classic Case of Gentrification?
Racial/Ethnic Composition
3%
11%
28%
58%
White
African American
Asian
Other
The Concentrated Poverty “Tax”
Effect of Moving From High-Poverty to Low-Poverty Community
Loss of wages ................................................ $3,000
Cost of cashing payroll checks ....................... $789
More expensive groceries ................................ $453
More expensive homeowner’s insurance ….... $200
Higher cost of car insurance ............................. $400
TOTAL ............................................................... $4,842
II. Linking Low-Income Communities to Regional
Opportunity Structures: The Case of 24:1
Pagedale
• Population: 3,304 (- 8.6 % since 2000)
• 27 % poverty rate
• 40 % female-headed households
• 17 % unemployment rate (2012)
• Few decent-paying jobs
One Major Urban Amenity: MetroLink Station
Rock Road Transit-Oriented Development
Extensive Citizen Engagement
TOD as an Anti-Poverty Strategy
Benefits of TOD in Weak-Market Setting
III. Link Place-Based Initiatives to People-Based
Services
Early Childhood Space
56 % of incoming students are not ready for kindergarten (Brigance Test)
Over 40 daycare providers
No communication between school district and daycare providers
Place-Based Collective Impact: Five-by-Five
Collective Impact
“Backbone Organization:” Beyond Housing
Place-based Component: 24:1 Initiative Reinforces Five-by-Five
•
•
•
•
Bringing daycare facilities up to code
Reduction of social isolation through community engagement
Free $500 College Savings Account and $4,500 Viking Advantage IDA
Housing repairs and reduced mobility
Conclusion:
What Are the Three Most Important
Prerequisites for Creating Whole
Communities?
Capacity
Capacity
Capacity!

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