Classroom Module Encouraging Expected Behavior

Report
MO SW-PBS Mini-Module
• This mini-module is designed to provide the slides and
materials needed to teach staff, students and families
about a SW-PBS topic.
• Notes have been written to assist with the presentation.
• More information is available in the Classroom chapter
of the 2012-13 MO SW-PBS Team Workbook about the
topic.
• Slides 2 – 14 are an introduction and may be deleted if
you have presented in previous mini-modules.
• Call your Regional Consultant if you have questions
• Good luck!
• Delete this slide before beginning your session.
Handouts
• Three handouts are needed to complete this
module:
– Role Play Examples of Positive Feedback
– A Menu of Classroom Reinforcers
– Encouraging Expected Behavior Fact Sheet
Note to Presenter
This Mini-Module on Encouraging Expected Behavior May Be
Presented as a whole (approximately 1.5 hours) OR Divided into
2 sessions
1. Introduction to Encouraging, Adult
Attention and Positive Feedback
2. Tangible Reinforcement and Menu
of Reinforcers
Outcomes:
• Understand the importance and
impact of both contingent and
non-contingent attention on
student behavior and classroom
climate.
• Use preferred adult behaviors to
build relationships and positive
classroom climate and effectively
interact with students when
talking about behavior.
• Demonstrate positive feedback
that specifically describes
behavior and uses rationales.
Outcomes:
• Develop a tangible reinforcement
system to enhance your use of
positive feedback.
• Develop and implement an
effective menu or continuum of
positive reinforcement that
serves to motivate all students.
Effective Classroom Practices
Outcomes
At the end of the session, you will be able to…
• Explain to others the power of positive and proactive
strategies in establishing an effective classroom learning
environment.
• Understand and be able to demonstrate methods to
encourage expected behavior.
MO SW-PBS
“When teachers know and use positive and
preventative management strategies, many of
the commonly reported minor classroom
behaviors can be avoided.”
Scheuermann & Hall
“Effective classroom management is a key
component of effective instruction, regardless of
grade level, subject, pedagogy or curriculum.”
Sprick, et. al
MO SW-PBS
Typical School Day
17%
33%
20%
30%
Direct Instruction
Seatwork
Transitions
Discipline & Other
Non-Instructional
Activities
Cotton, 1995; Walberg, 1988
MO SW-PBS
324
Academic Learning Time
There is no doubt that academic learning
time–the amount of time that students are
actively, successfully, and productively
engaged in learning–is a strong
determinant of achievement.
MO SW-PBS
Academic Learning Time
Instructional Time–the amount of the allocated
time that actually results in teaching.
Engaged Time–the amount of instructional time
students are actively engaged in learning.
MO SW-PBS
Academic Learning Time
Instructional Time–diminished by unclear
procedures, disruptive student behavior,
disciplinary responses, lengthy transitions, etc.
– Classroom Expectations
– Classroom Procedures & Routines
– Encouraging Expected Behavior
– Discouraging Inappropriate Behavior
MO SW-PBS
Academic Learning Time
• Engaged Time–diminished by inactive
supervision, limited opportunities for students
to respond, poor task selection, etc.
– Active Supervision
– Opportunities to Respond
– Activity Sequencing & Choice
– Task Difficulty
MO SW-PBS
Three Levels of Implementation
A Continuum of Support for All
Academic Systems
Behavioral Systems
Tier Three
Tier Three
• Individual Students
• Assessment-based
• High Intensity
• Individual Students
• Assessment-based
• Intense, durable procedures
Tier Two
• Some students (at-risk)
• High efficiency
• Rapid response
Tier Two
• Some students (at-risk)
• High efficiency
• Rapid response
Tier One
Tier One
• All students
• Preventive, proactive
• All settings, all students
• Preventive, proactive
MO SW-PBS
15
Effective Classroom Practices
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Classroom Expectations
Classroom Procedures & Routines
Encouraging Expected Behavior
Discouraging Inappropriate Behavior
Active Supervision
Opportunities to Respond
Activity Sequencing & Choice
Task Difficulty
MO SW-PBS
324
Discussion: Academic Learning Time
Discuss with a partner:
• What do we currently do to ensure uninterrupted
learning time?
• What do we currently do to ensure engaged time
(e.g., practices to ensure that students are on task,
responding frequently, and producing quality work
matched to their ability)?
MO SW-PBS
325
Effective classroom managers are known, not by
what they do when misbehavior occurs, but by
what they do to set their classroom up for
academic success and to prevent problems from
occurring.
MO SW-PBS
324
References
• Cotton, K. (1995) Effective schools research summary:
1995 update. Portland, OR: Northwest Regional
Educational Laboratory.
• Scheuermann, B. K. and Hall, J. A. (2008). Positive
behavioral supports for the classroom. Upper Saddle
River, NJ: Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall.
• Sprick, R., Knight, J., Reinke, W. & McKale, T. (2006).
Coaching classroom management: Strategies and tools
for administrators and coaches. Eugene, OR: Pacific
Northwest Publishing.
• Walberg, H. (1988). Synthesis of research on time and
learning. Educational Leadership 45(6), 76-85.
Encouraging Expected Behavior in
the Classroom
MO SW-PBS
Effective Classroom Practices
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Classroom Expectations
Classroom Procedures & Routines
Encouraging Expected Behavior
Discouraging Inappropriate Behavior
Active Supervision
Opportunities to Respond
Activity Sequencing & Choice
Task Difficulty
Outcomes
At the end of the session, you will be able to…
• Understand the importance and impact of both contingent
and non-contingent attention on student behavior and
classroom climate.
• Use preferred adult behaviors to build relationships and
positive classroom climate and effectively interact with
students when talking about behavior.
• Demonstrate positive feedback that specifically describes
behavior and uses rationales.
MO SW-PBS
Introduction to Encouraging,
Adult Attention and Positive Feedback
148
Introduction to Encouraging
• Clarifying and teaching classroom expectations alone
are not sufficient.
• Similar to encouraging academic behavior.
• Motivates students as they are initially learning
expected behavior, and maintains them as students
become more fluent with use.
• Essential to changing student behavior and creating a
positive school environment.
MO SW-PBS
148
Terminology
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
MO SW-PBS
Acknowledgment
Encouragement
Recognition
Reinforcement
Reward
Positive Feedback
Praise
Teacher Approval
149
Consequences: Making Adult Attention
Contingent on Performance of Desired Behaviors
A–B–C
Antecedent
Conditions or
circumstances that
alter the probability
of a behavior
occurring.
MO SW-PBS
Behavior
Consequence
An observable The resulting event or
act. What the
outcome that occurs
student does. immediately following
The actions or the behavior. Impacts
reactions to the future occurrence of
antecedents.
the behavior.
Activity: Encouraging Expected Behavior
Think and Share
Appoint a recorder for the whole group.
Take one minute and individually think of ways you
and your school reinforce academic behavior.
Now, think of ways you and your school recognize
social behavior.
What do you notice?
MO SW-PBS
150
Four Topics
1. Adult attention–non-contingent and
contingent
2. Effective Positive Feedback
3. Tangible reinforcement system
4. Menu or continuum of reinforcement
MO SW-PBS
The Power of Adult Attention
150
Adult Attention
Two types of adult attention:
1. Non-contingent
2. Contingent
MO SW-PBS
Adult Attention
Two types of adult attention:
1. Non-contingent–attention provided
regardless of student performance
• Greetings, proximity, smiles, conversations, jobs, etc.
2. Contingent.
MO SW-PBS
Non-Contingent Attention
As teachers report that positive student-teacher
relationships increase, the number of suspensions
students receive decrease.
As students report an increase in positive emotional
quality in the student-teacher relationship, the
number of behavior referrals received decrease and
the amount of time on-task increases.
Decker, Dona, & Christenson, 2007
MO SW-PBS
Adult Attention
Two types of adult attention:
1. Non-contingent
2. Contingent–provided based upon student
performance of an identified expectation
or behavior
• Praise, positive feedback, reinforcement, tangible
item.
MO SW-PBS
151
Low Rates of Teacher Attention
• Average teacher fails to take advantage of the power of
attention.
• Approval statements for academic responses far
outweigh those for social behavior.
• Highest rates of attention for social behavior occur in
2nd grade and decrease dramatically after that.
• Teachers respond more frequently to inappropriate
social behavior than to appropriate social behavior.
• This attention inadvertently maintains or increases the
misbehavior.
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152
Preferred Adult Behaviors
Behaviors that impact student affect, compliance, and learning:
• Proximity–communicate privately at 20” with individual students;
communication across the room reserved for information intended
for entire group only
• Listening–pause, attend thoughtfully to the student
• Eye Contact–communicate at eye level; look student in the eye when
instructing or directing; hold eye contact briefly for compliance
• Pleasant Voice–use calm pleasant voice when talking with, praising,
and correcting students
• Smiles–pleasant facial expression and frequent smiles
• Touch–appropriate brief nurturing touch
• Use of Student’s Name–begin interactions with student name and
use frequently during interactions
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153
Activity: Adult Attention & Preferred Behaviors
Think-Pair-Share
Pair up with someone you have not yet worked with.
Think about:
1) the preferred behaviors you appreciate someone using with
you
2) how you give attention to students and the preferred
behaviors you regularly use and
3) the preferred behaviors you could improve.
Share with your partner.
MO SW-PBS
Positive Feedback
154
Positive Feedback
Verbal reinforcement; a form of social
reinforcement that provides information on
successful behavior while reinforcing or
increasing the likelihood that behavior will be
repeated.
149
Positive Feedback
• Essential to change and sustain behavior.
• Recognizes successes or efforts at tasks that
are difficult for the child.
• While general praise contributes to a pleasant
classroom, it is insufficient to build and sustain
desired behavior.
• Students need clear specific feedback on
classroom expectations and behaviors.
MO SW-PBS
154
Effective Positive Feedback
1. Specifically describe the behavior:
• Explicitly define what was done that you want to continue.
• Like a video-tape replay.
• Expressed using the words of classroom
expectations.
“When I said it was time to begin, you
cleared off your desk, got your materials
out immediately, and began working
quickly.”
Effective Positive Feedback
2. Provide a rationale:
• Explain the reason why the behavior is important.
• Teach the benefits of the behavior and the impact it has
on them and others.
• Typically includes stating the classroom expectation and
what the student might expect could happen if they use
the appropriate behavior.
“Getting started right away shows
cooperation, and you will likely have
less homework.”
Effective Positive Feedback
3. Can include a positive consequence:
• Positive feedback alone may be sufficiently reinforcing.
• When behavior requires a great deal of effort, pairing
verbal feedback with tangible or activity reinforcement
may be helpful.
• When using a positive consequence, always pair with
specific positive feedback.
• Promote ownership; student
“earns,” teachers do not “give.”
“Because you got started so quickly,
you have earned a Cardinal Card.”
Putting It All Together
“When I said it was time to begin, you
cleared off your desk, got your materials
out immediately, and began working
quickly. Getting started right away shows
cooperation, and you will likely have
less homework. Because you got started so quickly,
you have earned a Cardinal Card.”
More Examples
• “Dolly, you stopped and took some time to think
about your decision and then walked away from
Sam. That wasn’t easy, but it can help to avoid an
argument.”
• “Hey Pedro, thanks for throwing your trash away.
That shows cooperation and respect for our
classroom. You earned a Bee ticket to add to our
class hive. We are getting close to our goals!”
• “Jasmine, thanks for being on time to class. That’s
important at school and when you are on the
job.”
Sincere and Appropriate Feedback
• Use a genuine, warm, sincere response that is
appropriate for the situation and the individual.
• Use a variety of phrases, showing spontaneity and
credibility.
• Find own style to communicate sincere care and concern.
“Super job walking quietly in your group! That shows respect to
everyone. Thank you.”
“Wow! What a great job of accepting correction. You looked right at
me, said ‘okay,’ and didn’t argue or complain. When you do that you
show respect and you can learn and avoid mistakes in the future. Why
don’t you be the first to leave class today.”
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155
Positive Feedback: Considerations
Use Positive Feedback:
• Contingently–only when students demonstrate
the desired behavior.
• Immediately–best when it closely follows the
behavior; allow for clear connection between the
behavior and the feedback.
• Frequently when trying to build a new behavior.
• Intermittently once the skill or behavior has been
learned to maintain the behavior.
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155
4:1 Ratio
• Establishes a predictable, positive environment
• Appropriate behavior receives more attention than
inappropriate.
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155
Activity: Role Play Practice to Give
Effective Positive Feedback
Practice
• Find a partner that you have not yet worked with. One
becomes the “teacher,” one the “student.”
• Role-play scenes on top of handout. Change roles and
repeat. Be aware of the preferred adult behaviors along
with your words.
• When you are comfortable with these, role-play
delivering positive feedback spontaneously, using your
own scenes and your classroom’s expectations and
specific behaviors.
• Select a scene to model for the group.
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156
Benefits of Positive Feedback
“When we focus our praise on positive actions,
we support a sense of competence and
autonomy that helps students develop real selfesteem.”
Davis, 2007
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155
Activity: Personal Reflection
• Think of a time in your classroom that is challenging
because students do not follow the classroom
expectations or procedures. Describe the specific
activity and misbehavior you see and hear.
• Write the specific classroom expectation or procedure
you want the students to follow.
• Write the Effective Positive Feedback you will say when
students follow the specific classroom expectation or
procedure.
• Write the specific day and time you are going to give
the Effective Positive Feedback.
MO SW-PBS
Activity: Personal Reflection Example
• Challenging Activity and Misbehavior: Beginning of
class students walk around, talk out
• Specific classroom expectation or procedure: Sit in
seat, read warm-up activity on Smart Board, begin to
work on warm-up activity with voices off.
• Effective Positive Feedback you will say: “Thanks for
getting to work right away with your voice off. That
helps you focus and take responsibility for your
learning.”
• Write the specific day and time you are going to give
the Effective Positive Feedback. Tomorrow, first hour!
MO SW-PBS
Conclusion
• In the long, run encouraging saves times
• When we encourage students with positive
feedback, we teach what we want them to do
• Positive feedback provides opportunities for
building relationships (which is important in
drop out prevention)
Your Challenge
Choose a consistent 5 – 10 minute time period
each day during the next two weeks to practice
giving effective positive feedback.
• Notice any changes in student behavior?
• How did it feel?
• Prepare to report back
Tangible Reinforcers and
A Menu of Classroom Reinforcers
158
Tangible Reinforcers
“I have not worked with a school that has
been able to give enough feedback to
students to maintain positive behavior
without using a tangible item, like a Pride
Ticket. The tangible helps staff remember to
give recognition to students.”
~ Tim Lewis, PBIS National Center Co-Director
MO SW-PBS
Four Topics
1. Adult attention–non-contingent and
contingent
2. Effective Positive Feedback
3. Tangible reinforcement system
4. Menu or continuum of reinforcement
MO SW-PBS
Outcomes
• At the end of the session, you will be able to…
• Develop a tangible reinforcement system to enhance
your use of positive feedback.
• Develop and implement an effective menu or
continuum of positive reinforcement that serves to
motivate students.
MO SW-PBS
Tangible Reinforcers:
• Help teachers be accountable for recognizing
student behavior and providing specific
positive feedback.
• Give a sign to students–both those receiving
and those watching.
• Build a sense of community through group
and class goals.
MO SW-PBS
Tangible Reinforcers–Continued
• Enhance staff-student relationships.
• Offer a gross measure of the frequency of
positive feedback being provided; can help
guide teachers to increase use of positive
feedback.
MO SW-PBS
Classroom Tangible System…
… a hallmark of SW-PBS
“Pod” (Table) Points FINISH NOTES
Class Goal
P=
A=
R=
K=
When students follow expectations, teacher
makes a tally mark beside a letter. When class
earns 25 marks after each letter, they walk to
the neighborhood park for recess.
MO SW-PBS
Class Goal
T=
A=
L=
K=
When students follow expectations, teacher
makes a tally mark beside a letter. When class
earns 25 marks after each letter, they have free
time to talk with classmates.
MO SW-PBS
Creative Ways to Use “Tickets”
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Set class or school goals.
Write name on ticket and drop in raffle box.
Competition between groups, rows, etc.
Chart and graph tickets earned.
Marbles in a jar
Display tickets outside classroom door.
Make a line of tickets to go around the room.
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158
“Using a reward system is not the same as bribing a
student to behave appropriately. A bribe is something offered or given a person in a position of trust
to influence or corrupt that person’s views or conduct. SW-PBS acknowledges and rewards students
for following school-wide (and classroom)
expectations and rules. Appropriate behavior is
acknowledged after it occurs. Rewards are earned,
not offered as payoff in exchange for good
behavior.”
Florida PBS
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159
Discussion: Tangible Reinforcement
With a partner, discuss the difference between
bribery and tangible reinforcers.
Discuss any concerns about using tangible
reinforcement in the classroom.
MO SW-PBS
A Menu of Reinforcers
162
What is a Menu of Reinforcers?
• A variety of types of reinforcers (activities or
privileges, social attention, tangible items)
• A variety of schedules for earning (continuous
or intermittent)
MO SW-PBS
Why a Menu of Reinforcement?
• Not all students are reinforced by the same things or in
the same ways.
• Some students desire or seek social attention.
• Others do not like or avoid social attention.
• Include social attention, activities, and tangible items
to appeal to all student needs.
• Students learning new behaviors need a continuous
schedule of reinforcement.
• Students who have demonstrated mastery respond to
an intermittent schedule of reinforcement.
MO SW-PBS
Activity: Menu of Reinforcers
•
•
•
•
Review the sample reinforcers on the handout.
Circle those reinforcers you currently use.
Star those reinforcers you will commit to using.
Discuss your list with a partner. Do each of you
have reinforcers in all categories and for seekers
and avoiders?
MO SW-PBS
Four Topics Related to Encouraging
Expected Classroom Behavior
1. Adult attention–non-contingent and
contingent
2. Effective Positive Feedback
3. Tangible reinforcement system
4. Menu or continuum of reinforcement
MO SW-PBS
Questions
MO SW-PBS
References
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Algozzine, B., Wang, C., & Violette, A.S. (2010). Reexamining the Relationship Between
Academic Achievement and Social Behavior. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions
13(1), 3-16.
Decker, D.M., Dona, D.P., & Christenson, S.L. (2007). Behaviorally at-risk African
American students: The importance of student–teacher relationships for student
outcomes. Journal of School Psychology 45, 83–109
Good, C.E., Eller, B.F., Spangler, R.S., & Stone, J.E. (1981). The effect of an operant
intervention program on attending and other academic behavior with emotionally
disturbed children. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 9(1), 25-33.
Jones, V.F., & Jones, L.S. (1995). Comprehensive classroom management. Boston: Allyn
and Bacon.
Lane, K.L., Kalberg, J.R. & Menzies, H.M. (2009). Developing schoolwide programs to
prevent and manage problem behaviors: A step-by-step approach. New York: Guilford.
Reavis, Jenson, Kukic & Morgan (1993). Utah's BEST project: Behavioral and
educational strategies for teachers. Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City, UT.
Sutherland, K.S., Wehby, J.H. & Copeland, S.R. (2000). Effect of varying rates of
behavior-specific praise on the on-task behavior of students with EBD. Journal of
Emotional and Behavior Disorders, 8, 2-8.
For More Information
• Missouri Schoolwide Positive Behavior
Support
websitehttp://pbismissouri.org/educators/eff
ective-class-practice

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