Portable Extinguishers Firefighter I North Carolina Fire & Rescue Commission Portable Extinguishers Lesson One Firefighter I TERMINAL OBJECTIVE n The Firefighter I candidate shall identify in writing the classifications of fire as they relate to the use of fire extinguishers, define the fire extinguisher rating systems, identify the appropriate extinguisher and application procedures, and correctly demonstrate extinguishing Class A and B fires by using appropriate portable fire extinguishers. Enabling Objectives n n The Firefighter I candidate, when given a fire scenario, shall correctly identify each of the five classes of fire and the appropriate type of fire extinguisher to use on each class. The Firefighter I candidate shall correctly identify, verbally and in writing, the ratings of any given portable fire extinguisher. Enabling Objectives n The Firefighter I candidate shall correctly identify, verbally and in writing, the different types of fire extinguishers and the agents used in each. Enabling Objectives n The Firefighter I candidate shall visually, verbally, and by physical demonstration correctly inspect portable fire extinguishers and determine proper working order and placement. Enabling Objectives n n The Firefighter I candidate shall correctly list in writing the proper maintenance requirements and hydrostatic testing procedures for portable fire extinguishers. The Firefighter I candidate shall correctly identify in writing the steps for selecting the appropriate portable fire extinguisher, and demonstrate the use of extinguishers on Class A and B fires. Classes Of Fire n Five Classes of fire – Class A: ordinary combustibles – Class B: flammable and combustible liquids, gases, and greases – Class C: fires that are created from electrical energy – Class D: combustible metals and alloys – Class K: combustible cooking oils Classes Of Fire n n n n n Class A: ordinary combustibles – Textiles, paper, plastics, rubber, wood Class B: flammable and combustible liquids, gases, and greases – Alcohol, cooking oils, gasoline, LPG Class C: fires that are created from electrical energy Class D: combustible metals and alloys – Lithium, magnesium, potassium, sodium Class K: combustible cooking oils – Vegetable and animal fats and oils Classes Of Fire n Class A: ordinary combustibles – Water, foam, dry chemicals n n Class B: flammable and combustible liquids, gases, and greases – CO2, class B foam, dry chemical Class C: fires that are created from electrical energy – Eliminate the electrical energy Classes Of Fire n n Class D: combustible metals and alloys – Dry powder extinguishers Class K: combustible cooking oils – Wet chemical extinguishers Extinguisher Ratings Extinguisher ratings define the extinguishing capability for each size and type of portable extinguisher. n They are rated according to the type of fire they can extinguish n The number represents their performance capability Extinguisher Ratings n n n n n Class A ratings: 1-A through 40-A Class B ratings: 1-B through 640-B Class C ratings: No numerical rating. Nonconductive agent Class D ratings: No numerical rating. Tested for reactivity and toxicity Class K ratings: Agents capable of converting fatty acids to a soap or foam. Minimum criteria extinguishes a surface area of 2.25 sq. ft. Extinguisher Ratings n Multiple markings – Suitable for extinguishing more than one class of fire and are identified by a combination of letters Extinguisher Ratings n n n Class A ratings: 1-A - 1 ¼ gal (5L) of water Class B ratings: 1-B - extinguish 1 sq. ft. of area Class C ratings: No numerical rating Extinguisher Ratings n n Class D ratings: No numerical rating. Class K ratings: No numerical rating. Minimum criteria extinguishes a surface area of 2.25 sq. ft. Extinguisher Ratings n Pump-type water extinguishers – Class A n Stored pressure water extinguishers – Class A n Water-mist stored pressure extinguishers – Class A – Class C n Aqueous film forming foam (AFFF) extinguishers – Class A – Class B Extinguisher Ratings n Clean agent extinguishers – Class A – Class B – Class C n Carbon dioxide extinguishers – Class B – Class C n Wet chemical stored-pressure extinguishers – Class K Extinguisher Ratings n Dry chemical extinguishers – Class A – Class B – Class C Wheeled dry chemical extinguisher Extinguisher Ratings n Dry powders – Class D Class D extinguishers No single agent will extinguish fires in all combustible metals Extinguisher Selection n n n n n n n Class of burning fuel Rating of extinguisher Exposures to protect Size and intensity of fire Surrounding conditions Ease of extinguisher handling Personnel training Extinguisher Application n n Select size and type Check the extinguisher – Condition of container and nozzle – Weight – Pressure gauge n Approach from the windward side Extinguisher Application n PASS Method of application – – – – P: Pull the pin A: Aim the nozzle S: Squeeze the handles together S: Sweep the nozzle back and forth Extinguisher Protection NFPA 10, 2010 edition Standard For Portable Fire Extinguishers n n Fire extinguishers shall not be exposed to temperatures outside the listed temperature range shown on the extinguisher label Fire extinguishers containing only water shall be protected to temperatures as low as -400F by the addition of an antifreeze that is stipulated on the fire extinguisher nameplate Extinguisher Protection n Calcium chloride solutions shall not be used in stainless steel fire extinguishers Extinguisher Service &Inspection n n n n Inspect at least once each year to ensure accessibility and operability They must be in their designated locations Ensure they have not been activated or tampered with Check for physical signs of damage Servicing is done by a fire extinguisher professional Extinguisher Inspection Inspections n Inspect at least once each year to ensure it is accessible and in the proper location n Check nozzle or horn for obstructions or damage Extinguisher Inspection Inspections n Check the the shell for damage n Operating instructions are legible n Check the locking pin and tamper seal are in place n Check that the extinguisher is full of agent Extinguisher Inspection Inspections n Check that the extinguisher is full of agent – By pressure gauge – By weight – By agent level n Check inspection tag – Date of last inspection – Maintenance – Recharging n Examine hose and fittings Extinguisher Hydrostatic Testing NFPA 10, 2010 edition Standard For Portable Fire Extinguishers n Test results should be fixed to the can Obsolete Extinguishers n Inverting type fire extinguishers – Soda-acid – Foam – Internal cartridge-operated water and loaded stream – Internal cartridge dry-chemical Obsolete Extinguishers n Soft soldered or riveted copper or brass cylinders Obsolete Extinguishers n n Carbon tetrachloride or chlorobromomethane Halon – Halon 1211 – Halon 1301 Summary Review the five classes of fire and the type of portable fire extinguisher to be used on each class of fire. Summarize the ratings and sizes of each type of extinguisher and how the ratings are determined. Review the marking systems used on extinguishers and the various different agents used. Summary Review inspection procedures and hydrostatic testing. Summarize the operational methods for each fire extinguisher.