Three main types of lung disease - PowerPoint

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Respiratory Diseases
Respiratory diseases cause problems with
breathing and getting enough oxygen
Types of Respiratory Diseases
• There are 3 main types of respiratory
diseases:
– Airway diseases
– Lung tissue diseases
– Pulmonary circulation diseases
Airway diseases
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These diseases affect the
tubes (airways) that carry
oxygen and other gases into
and out of the lungs
These diseases cause a
narrowing or blockage of the
airways
They include asthma and
bronchitis. People with
airway diseases sometimes
describe the feeling as
“trying to breathe out
through a straw.”
Small air tubes (bronchi)
Lung tissue diseases
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These diseases affect the
structure of the lung tissue.
Scarring or inflammation of
the tissue makes the lungs
unable to expand fully
It also makes the lungs less
capable of taking up oxygen
and releasing carbon dioxide.
People sometimes describe
the feeling as "wearing a tootight sweater or vest" that
won't allow them to take a
deep breath
Lung tissue (alveoli)
Pulmonary circulation diseases
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These diseases affect the
blood vessels in the lungs
They are caused by
clotting, scarring, or
inflammation of the blood
vessels
They affect the ability of
the lungs to take up
oxygen and to release
carbon dioxide
These diseases may also
affect heart function
Blood vessels
Asthma
• When an asthma attack
occurs, the muscles
surrounding the airways
become tight and the
lining of the air passages
swell. This reduces the
amount of air that can
pass through
• Most people with asthma
have wheezing attacks
separated by symptomfree periods
• In sensitive individuals,
asthma symptoms can be
triggered by inhaling
certain substances
Bronchitis
• Bronchitis is a swelling of the inside layer of bronchi
• There are two types of bronchitis: acute, which is
temporary, and chronic, which is long-lasting
• Viruses cause about 90% of acute bronchitis cases,
whereas bacteria account for about 10%.
• Chronic bronchitis is
characterized by the
presence of a productive
cough that lasts for three
months or more per year
for at least two years.
Cigarette smoking and air
pollution are the most
common causes
Chronic obstructive pulmonary
disease (COPD)
• COPD is poor airflow in the
bronchi caused by the
breakdown of lung tissue
(emphysema)
• Symptoms include difficulty
breathing and coughing
• It is most commonly caused by
tobacco smoke or air pollution
• It usually worsens over time,
and is rarely reversible
Tobacco smoke
• Tobacco smoke contains about 1000 chemicals,
many of them being harmful
• It contains nicotine which is addictive
• When something is addictive, people feel like
they need it just to feel okay or normal, so it’s
very hard to stop
• Smoking makes tar, a black sticky substance,
form in the lungs
• Tar contains about 60 chemicals that are known
to cause cancer (carcinogens)
Lung cancer
• Lung cancer is a lung
tissue disease
• Lung cancer causes
about 1.4 million
deaths every year
• It is one of the leading
causes of death in the
world
• 80-90% of lung
cancer is caused by
smoking

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