Human Body System - Life Science Academy

Report
Unit one
8/16/2013
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 Essential Questions
As we discuss an essential question, write it down in your
journal
Keep notes on the question throughout the unit
Each question gets a separate page!
 Key term crossword puzzle
As we discuss key terms, write down the definition
in your journal
As you have time, go back and fill in the crossword
Not during other activities!
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 What is a system?
 What is an example of a non-living system?
 How does a malfunction in one part affect the
whole system?
 Give a few examples of how human body systems
work together.
 Name the eleven human body systems
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Name the eleven human body systems
 Integumentary system,
 Skeletal system,
 Muscular system,
 Nervous system,
 Endocrine system,
 Cardiovascular system,
 Lymphatic system and immunity,
 Respiratory system,
 Digestive system,
 Urinary system,
 Reproductive system
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 Split into groups of two or three Students will randomly draw a system Your Group assignment is to focus on and
find “Amazing Facts” about that system, and
at least two “Amazing Facts” about another
systems your group choses to investigate.
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 By donating one pint of blood 4 lives can be
saved
 The human heart beats roughly 35 million times
a year
 It is not possible to tickle yourself because your
brain warns the rest of the body and by doing so
your brain will ignore this sensation
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 Essential Questions
As we discuss an essential question, write it down in your
journal
Keep notes on the question throughout the unit
Each question gets a separate page!
 Key term crossword puzzle
As we discuss key terms, write down the definition
in your journal
As you have time, go back and fill in the crossword
Not during other activities!
8/16/2013
7
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Activity 1.1.1. Amazing Facts
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List the major organs in your system
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Discuss top five Amazing Facts found
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Think about how your Primary System can
act like a Secondary System
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The pelvis bone is the largest bone in the human body.
Did you know that bones are actually living?
Our bones when healthy are strong as steel and 4 times as hard as
concrete.
Did you know, we are taller in the morning than at night.
Did you know, there are six different types; wide, short, flat, irregular,
sesamoid, sutural.
Did you know when we are born you can have up to 350 bones but when
you’re an adult you have 206
about 2 million blood cells die every second and the same amount is born
the heart beats about 3 billion times in a life time
Andrew McIntosh
Akeel Kalik
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The endocrine system is responsible for producing thirty different
hormones.
Produces the pineal gland which allows you to sleep.
Has no ducts, so hormones are secreted directly into the blood.
Regulates the menstrual cycle.
When you experience rushes of fear, that is a result of the epinephrine
hormone.
Aids the immune system by helping the body resist disease.
Produces hormone in the hypothalamus that produces the hunger
sensation so you don’t starve.
Digestive system
 All organs are hollow
 Inner walls of organs are lined with mucus
 Eric Schwender
 Tyler White
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o
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There are muscles in the root of your hair that give you goose bumps
It takes 17 muscles to smile and 42 muscles to frown
The largest muscle in your body is the gluteus maximus
The smallest muscle in your body is in the ear, the Stapedius
The longest muscle is the Sartorius
200 muscles are used in each step you take
Muscles account for about 40% of your body weight
Respiratory System
The highest recorded “sneezing speed” is 165km per hour
We lose half a liter of water every day through breathing
Nathan Emery
Makailah Cecil
8/16/2013
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Studies show that people who lack humor in their lives tend to have less protective
immune responses
Too much sunshine can damage the immune system
Lymph nodes are not found in the feet
Allergies are due to an overreaction in the immune system
Autoimmune disease is more prominent in women
Lymphatic comes from the Latin word lymphaticus, which means “connected to
water” , because lymph is clear
Tonsillectomies occur much less frequently than in the 50s, but are still one of the
most popular operations today
Lymph, unlike blood, can only travel in 1D
In today’s world, humans encounter more toxins in 24hrs than the lymphatic system
can process
Dieting decreases natural killer cell functionality
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Digestive System
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>90% of digestion takes place in the small intestine
The liver is the largest organ and performs >500 functions
Lucy Kurtz and Emily Linn
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Urine can be diluted and used for watering plants
The bladder can hold about one pint
About 440 gallons of blood are filtered through the kidneys daily
The kidneys have higher blood flow than the brain, liver, or heart
A baby’s kidneys are about 3 times larger in proportion to their body weight
Urine can be used to soften the skin and whiten the teeth
Muscles in the ureter walls are constantly flexing to force liquid out of the
kidneys
In infants and children, the bladder is located in the abdomen and moves to
the pelvis at about age 6
Urine is released into the bladder about every 10 seconds
The kidneys are about the size of a fist
Nervous System
 The brain has more than 100 billion neurons
 The nervous system can transmit signals at over 100 meters per second
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Elaine Leslie
Alek Blandford
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The heart beats about 3 billion times in the average persons lifespan
About 8 million blood cells die each second and the same number are reborn
each second
 Within a drop of blood there are 5 million red blood cells
 It takes about 20 seconds for a red blood cells to circle the whole body
 Red blood cells make about 250,000 round trips of the body before returning to
the bone marrow to die
 Red blood cells may live for 4 months circulating the body, feeding the other 60
trillion cells
 Plasma is 54.3% of blood volume
 Blood regulates core temperature and pH balance
 About .7% of the blood is white blood cells
 About 2,000 gallons of blood are pumped through the heart every day
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Digestive system
About 1.7 liters of saliva is produced every day
An adults stomach can hold about 1 and a half liters
Within 2-6 hours all the food is emptied into the small intestine
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Makayla Claiborne and Dakota Edgell
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There are more nerves in the human brain than there are stars in the
Milky Way
There are 100 billion neurons in your brain alone
A new born baby’s brain grows almost 3 times larger during the course of
its first year
There are about 13.5 million neurons in the spinal cord
An average adult male brain weighs about 1375 grams
Only 4 percent of the brain’s cells work while the remaining cells are kept
in reserve
Neurons are the largest cells in the body (they can be up to 3 feet long.)
The Nervous System can transmit impulses as fast as 100 meter per
second
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Muscular System
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 1. 17 muscles to smile and 42 muscles to frown
 2. The hardest working muscle is in the eye
Cole Tapp
Kanyon Tapp
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1. In what ways do the parts of the human
body system work together to carry out a
specific function?
2. In what ways do different human body
systems work together to complete specific
functions?
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1. In what ways do the parts of the human body system work together to carry out a
specific function?
The different parts of the urinary system are the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra.
These are examples of the different parts of the system working together to carry out a
function of the excretory system. They work together to carry out filtering wastes and
purifying the blood and ridding the body of the precise volume of fluid.
The integumentary system is your body's first line of defense to protect the body from sun
damage, temperature regulation, pathogens entry, fluid loss, and protection of underlying
tissues. It also protects the body by housing the millions of nerves that warn the body of
pain or injury, heat or cold, pleasure or touch.
The different parts of the skeletal system such as bone and cartridge work together to carry
out the various specific function of supporting, padding, protecting and providing shape to
the body.
Various organs of the endocrine system produce and release hormones into the
bloodstream to regulate, stimulate of suppress an active.
The different parts of the CV system, (the heart, vessels, blood) all work together to deliver
blood to the different parts of your body.
The nose or mouth, pharynx, larynx, trachea bronchi, alveoli, and the lungs, are parts of the
respiratory system that work together to carry out a specific function of respiration.
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2 In what ways do different human body systems work together to complete specific
functions?
The integumentary system and the nervous system work together to relay messages to the
brain. They are interconnected to complete specific functions of protection, warning of
danger, or pleasurable touch.
The central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system also work together to carry
out multiple functions such as the fight or flight response. The central nervous system
includes the spinal cord and the brain, which gets the information from the body and sends
out instructions. The peripheral nervous system includes all of the nerves and sends
messages from the brain to the rest of the body.
The excretory system, the cardiovascular system, the GI system and the endocrine system
all play an important part and work together to complete the specific functions of waste
removal and fluid balance.
The skeletal system and the muscular system work together to provide body posture,
movement of the body such as jumping , running, or walking, or just changing your position
that the nervous system told the body that it is time to move to prevent damage to cells
from prolong pressure.
The cardiovascular system and respiratory system work together to supply the body with
blood for oxygenation and nutrition to the cells.
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How do you give someone directions?
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How do you explain location or directions on
the human body?
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Equipment
 Manikins
 Post-it Flags
 Colored Pencils
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Documents
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Activity 1.1.2
Adoption Certificates
Body Organizer
Crossword Puzzle
Assemble Manikin
Name your Manikin-place your
manikin’s name on the base
 Complete Adoption Certificates
 Always store manikins in there proper
place
 All Manikins look the same now but will
soon take on their own personalities.
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Pair Up
Brainstorm
Complete Activity 1.1.2
3.
How can directional terms and regional
terms help describe location in the body?
4.
What features of structure and function are
common to all humans?
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1. What are the benefits of using universal terms and
anatomical position to refer to location on the human
body? How do they help identify all humans?
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2. What does it mean if a doctor says he/she is about
to dissect the distal end of the popliteal artery?
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3. Your friend assures you that anterior and posterior
can always be used interchangeably with ventral and
dorsal. Politely explain to him/her that this statement
is not always true. (HINT: think about what these
terms mean for four-legged animals)
Simon Says
 The basic processes of the human
body unite us as humans, but tiny
differences in our
 appearance,
 our tissues
 and our cells
 make us truly unique
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Manikins
Clay &Clay tools
Colored Pencils
Lab Journals
Microscope
Tissue Slides
Body System Organizer -Skeletal View
Copies of Activity 1.2.1
Microscope Resource Sheet
Inspriation
For windows, go to this link,
 http://download.inspiration.com/download/wi
ndows/inspiration9_win_cd.exe
For Macintosh go to this link,
 http://download.inspiration.com/download/m
ac/inspiration9_mac_cd.dmg

14-digit subscription license: 2633D1237J9601
 When you think of human identity, what
comes to mind
 At the beginning of the week we systems
and on organ structures that are common
to all humans.
 Over the year we will be looking at process
that occurs in all of our bodies.
 But what makes us special?
 Systems
 Organs
 Tissues
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Tissues are groups of cells that are similar in
structure that work together to perform a
specific function.
There are four main tissue types:
 Epithelium
 Connective tissue
 Muscle
 Nervous tissue
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Epithelium, or epithelial tissue,
forms the linings, coverings, and glandular
tissue of the body.
 One type of epithelium forms the outer layer of
the skin
 Another type of epithelium lines the air sacs of the
lungs
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Cells in epithelium are packed tightly
together to form continuous sheets
Connective tissue protects, supports, and binds
together other body tissues.
 Connective tissue is made up of different types of
cells in varying amounts of a nonliving substance
around the cells, called the matrix.
 Examples of connective tissue include:
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 Bone
 Cartilage
 Adipose tissue (fat)
 Blood
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Muscle tissue is specialized to contract and
cause movement.
There are three main types of muscle tissue:
 Skeletal muscle
 Cardiac muscle
 Smooth muscle
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Can you guess the location and function of
each muscle type?
Nervous tissue is composed of specialized cells
called neurons that receive and send electrical
signals in the body.
 Nervous tissue responds to stimuli and transmits
impulses and together with supporting cells, makes
up the brain, spinal cord, and nerves.
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1.
What are the main types of tissue in the human
body?
2.
How does the structure of a type of human tissue
relate to its function in the body?
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Pair up
Complete Part 1 only
Concept Map
View prepared slides
Link for more slide views
http://histology.osumc.edu/histology/Hum
anHisto/index.htm#
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Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is an inherited connective
tissue disease causing blisters in the skin and mucosal
membranes, with an incidence of 1/50,000. It is a result of
a defect in anchoring between the epidermis and dermis,
resulting in friction and skin fragility. Its severity ranges
from mild to lethal.
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"Butterfly Children" is a term often used to describe
younger patients (because the skin is said to be as fragile
as a butterfly’s wings [2] , "Cotton Wool Babies,",[3][4] or
(in South America) as "Crystal Skin Children".[5]
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http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=epidermolysis+bul
losa&qpvt=epidermolysis+bullosa&FORM=IGRE
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Facial features
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http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h_HaJT7
OVIQ&feature=player_detailpage
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1.1.1 Activity with conclusion questions . body system organizer
with Top 5 amazing facts ,
1.1.2 Activity , with conclusion questions 2 Body system
organizer with regional and directional terms, CWpuzzle
p
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1.2.1 Activity Identity, with conclusion questions Concept map,
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Thing that should be in your lab journal
Essential Question 1-4
Sentences that show directional terms,
Microscope tissue drawings) essential questions, 1-
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Complete through question 15
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Discuss proper use of clay and tools and
Manikin Rules
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Let’s create a face Using Teacher Building Instructions
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Compare Manikins
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Adipose tissue- Connective tissue in which fat is stored and
which has the cells distended by droplets of fat
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Connective Tissue- Animal tissue that functions mainly to
bind and support other tissues, having a sparse population of
cells scattered through an extracellular matrix
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Epithelial Tissue- Sheets of tightly packed cells that line
organs and body cavities
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Tissue- An integrated group of cells with a common
structure and function
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#3 How does the distribution and structure
of different types of tissue in the body
contribute to personal identity.
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#4 “What are the functions of the human
skeletal system?”
 Remember bones are type connective tissue
 What do you know about the skeletal system
 Name this bone
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Computer with internet
Anatomy in Clay Maniken
Body System graphic Organizer (Skeletal
View)
Colored pencils
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Research the listed bones
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Label you Manikins
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Quiz yourself/partner
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#5 “What are the main bones of the human
skeletal system”
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Buccal Region of the cheek (inside the cheek
between cheek and the gums)
The olecranal is lateral to the axillary region
The wrist is distal to the forearm
Epithelial tissue lines the colon.
Smooth muscle lines the uterus, urinary
bladder and blood vessels.( #10 if you chose
bladder I will give credit)
.
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Connective tissue protects, supports, and binds
together other body tissues.
 Connective tissue is made up of different types of
cells in varying amounts of a nonliving substance
around the cells, called the matrix.
 Examples of connective tissue include:
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 Bone
 Cartilage
 Adipose tissue (fat)
 Blood
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REMEMBER
Ligament tissue is comprised of different
grades of collagen, or connective tissue, to
connect bone to bone within the human body
A tendon is a fibrous connective tissue which
attaches muscle to bone. Tendons may also
attach muscles to structures such as the
eyeball
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2 Groups of 7 on each side of the room ( One group to each skeleton)
You will be trying to determine the
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Age
Race
Sex
Height
2 to 3 students at each station to gather measurements of:
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Skull
Femur
Pelvis
Humerus
Tibia
When satisfied with measure move to the next bone and gather data.
 Then group will come back together to compare data and make a
conclusion.
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Review Learning from Bones
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/visibleproofs/education/anthro
pological/index.html.
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Read the Introduction
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Career Journal- Forensic Anthropologist
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Forensic Video
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7cogeHybySI&feature
=player_detailpage
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http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c8IHPq9VgWI&feature
=player_detailpage
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#6 What is forensic anthropology and how
does the field relate to human body systems?
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#7 How can features of bone be used to
determine information about a person’s
gender, ethnicity, age, or stature?
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Each group will use the laminated instruction
sheets to take measurements of the bone at
each station
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You will need Project 1.2.3 Student Data Sheet
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Split into two teams
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Now split into four groups
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Sept. 3 Activity 1.2.3. Bone Detectives
Sept 4th Activity 1.2.4 Height Estimation
Sept 5_ 11 Activity 1.3.1 DNA Detectives
Sept 12 Review and study for test
Sept 13th Or Sept 16th Test over Unit 1
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Sept 16th start Unit 2
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We will determine proximal age, height, and race of our victims.
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Race and Ethnicity
 Mongoloid (Asian) is an anthropological term for a group that includes
Chinese, Koreans, Japanese, Tibetan, Eskimo and some Native
Americans.
 Negroid (Black) is a classification including Sub-Saharan African and
Afro-Caribbean peoples and their descendants.
 Caucasoid (White) refers to people of Anglo or Caucasian descent from
Europe, parts of North Africa, Western Asia and India and their
descendants.
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forensic anthropologist, Diane France
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KcnGybzF
hjM watch 10min50sec then again at 34min
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Datahttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Kcn
GybzFhjM&feature=player_detailpagehttp://
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www.youtube.com/watch?v=KcnGybzFhjM&f
eature=player_detailpage#t=0
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Discuss findings
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Compare and discuss differences in male and
female bones.
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Why may the three-race model no longer be
accurate
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Discuss differences between Qualitative and
Quantitative Data
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Sex Determination
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Race Determination
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Height Determination
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Age Determination
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Axial Skeleton- The skeleton of the trunk and head.
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Appendicular Skeleton- Bones of the limbs and limb girdles that
are attached to the axial skeleton
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Femur- The proximal bone of the hind or lower limb that is the
longest and largest bone in the human body, extends from the hip
to the knee
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Forensic Anthropology- The branch of physical anthropology in
which anthropological data, criteria, and techniques are used to
determine the sex, age, genetic population, or ancestry of skeletal
or biological materials in questions of civil or criminal law
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Humerus-The longest bone of the upper arm or forelimb
extending from the shoulder to the elbow
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Pelvis-A basin-shaped structure in the skeleton of many
vertebrates that is formed by the pelvic girdle together with the
sacrum and often various coccygeal and caudal vertebrae and that
in humans is composed of the two hip bones bounding it on each
side and in front while the sacrum and coccyx complete it behind
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Skull- The skeleton of the head forming a bony case that encloses
and protects the brain and chief sense organs and supports the
jaws
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Tibia- The inner and usually larger of the two bones of the leg
between the knee and ankle that articulates above with the femur
and below with the talus -- called also shinbone
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Equations
 In the 1950’s Dr. Trotter developed mathematical formulas
that correlated body height to the length of their arm and leg
bones.
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To Complete Parts I - Pair into groups of 2
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You will measure your height in cm and then the femur, humerus,
and radius bones in cm to use to calculate your height. ( 1 foot =
30.48 cm)
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Like in criminal investigations an estimated range of height is
given. Like 5’9” to 6’2”
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Use the + and – formulas to get your error value for minimal
and maximal height range.
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Part II You will use a formula specific to
Gender and Ethnicity. We will need data from
7 male and 7 female.
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Then using an Excel file you will develop Your
Own Formula.
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“How well do these equations work?” What
equation was most accurate?
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Revisited
 #3 How does the distribution and structure of
different types of tissue in the body contribute to
personal identity.
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Approximately 1cc of the DNA sample was taken
from Skeletal remains and labeled
 The pieces were stored in EtOH and frozen -20°C
 Samples were transported to OCTC in
refrigerated containers for genetic analysis
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Agarose
A polysaccharide obtained from seaweed that is used as
the supporting medium in gel electrophoresis.
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Biometrics
The measurement and analysis of unique physical or
behavioral characteristics (as fingerprint or voice patterns)
especially as a means of verifying personal identity.
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Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
A double-stranded, helical nucleic acid molecule capable
of replicating and determining the inherited structure of
a cell’s proteins.
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Gel electrophoresis
The separation of nucleic acids or proteins, on the basis of
their size and electrical charge, by measuring their rate of
movement through an electrical field in a gel.
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Restriction enzyme
A degradative enzyme that recognizes specific nucleotide
sequences and cuts up DNA.
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Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs)
Differences in DNA sequence on homologous
chromosomes that can result in different patterns of
restriction fragment lengths (DNA segments resulting
from treatment with restriction enzymes).
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What level of organization comes below
tissues.
CELLS
 Now- Figuratively zoom in on the cell and
describe the genetic material found inside the
cell.
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Chromosome
Gene
Protein
DNA
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List sources of DNA evidence
 Skin cells
 Hair
 Blood
 Semen
 Old tissue such as bone but amplified
using Polymerase Change Reaction
(PCR)
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 How does this genetic material inside the cell
relate to overall function of the human body
 Chromosome
 Gene
 Protein
 DNA
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Chromosomes: are 23 pairs
considered the building
blocks of the human body.
They are long pieces of DNA
found in the center (nucleus)
of cells.
Chromosomes functions are
based on the precise
structure of the organelle
that carries out that
function.
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A hereditary unit consisting of a sequence of DNA that
occupies a specific location on a chromosome and
determines a particular characteristic in an organism.
Genes are the functional unit of heredity passed from
parent to offspring through mitosis. Genes are pieces of
DNA, and most genes contain the information for
making a specific protein and thus cells
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Proteins are constructed from a set
of 20 amino acids like long necklaces
with different shaped beads.
 To become active, proteins must
twist and fold into their final
conformation
 Proteins that are donut shaped,
enable them to form a complete ring
around the DNA and regulate the
activity of genetic material.
 This DNA polymerase III cinches
around DNA and moves along the
strands as it copies the genetic
material.

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 DNA is like an
architect's
blueprint.
Think of it as
an Owner's
Manual for
your body.
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May want to remember: DNA is
made of 2 components, Phosphate
molecules and deoxyribose sugars.
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


DNA is a unique code of over 3 billion base
pairs that provide a genetic blueprint of an
individual.
It’s function in the human body includes
coding for proteins. It holds the instructions of
an organism's development and reproduction
therefore its survival.
It also transfers genetic messages to all other
cells in the human body.
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
1. What is the structure and function of
DNA

2. How does DNA differ from person to
person

3. What role does DNA play in our
Identity
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taking up too much sample with the
micropipettor,
taking up air in addition to the sample,
 not completely expelling the sample,
sucking the sample out of the well,
poking the pipette tip through the
bottom of the gel well.
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





Place a new tip on the micropipettor, being careful to not
touch the tip to any surface.
Depress the plunger to the first stop and hold it in this
position.
Dip the tip of the micropipettor into the top of the
solution to be transferred.
Gradually release the plunger and draw the fluid into the
tip, making sure to keep the tip in the solution.
Slide the pipet tip out along the inside wall of the reagent
tube to dislodge any excess droplets adhering to the
outside of the tip.
Check to make sure there are no air bubbles in the
sample in the tip. If there are air bubbles, expel the sample
using the directions below and restart procedure.
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





Insert the tip of the micropipettor into the area
where you want to expel the liquid.
Slowly depress the plunger to the first stop to expel
the sample and continue to depress the plunger to
the second stop to ensure all of the liquid is expelled.
Hold the plunger in the depressed position.
Slide the micropipettor out with the plunger
depressed. Do not release the plunger from the
depressed position to avoid sucking any liquid back
into the tip.
Once the tip is out of the liquid, release the plunger.
Eject the tip into the proper disposal area by pressing
down on the tip-ejector button
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



Set fake gel into casting trey
Secure casting trey into chamber well- line up
the notch
Pour water into chamber until it fills BOTH ends
and covers gel completely
Micropipette
 Secure tip until “click”
 Set measurement and pick-up 20-35 uL of practice
loading dye
 Don’t push all the way down
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
Practice filling each
well
 Don’t poke holes in gel
 Don’t create air
bubbles
 Keep the plunger
depressed until after
you have raised the
micropipettor away
from the gel
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A Biochemical technique used to amplify the number
of copies of a specific region of DNA generating
thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA
sequence in order to be adequately tested.
 Named after the enzyme, polymerase, which copies
DNA in cells.
 It’s a chain reaction because multiple events occur in
succession, over and over again in the same
sequential order.
 Each time the series of events is
completed, one cycle has been
completed. Each series of events = 1 cycle



Completed in a thermal cycler in a lab.
What are some of the uses:
 Cloning
 Diagnosis of hereditary diseases
 Paternity testing
 Diagnosis of infectious diseases
 Identification of finger prints
 Forensic sciences
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1.
2.
3.
4.
DNA is obtained from
the skeletal remain
gene is amplified by PCR
DNA is cut in specific
places by the use of
restriction enzymes.
The restriction enzyme
Restriction enzymes
recognizes specific
nucleotide sequences are derived from
Bacteria
and cuts DNA

This detection is possible because of Restriction
Fragment Length Polymorphism or RFLP.
 Polymorphism- “many- types” = different
lengths revealing similarity to a missing
persons skeletal remains.
 Similarities in the DNA sequences of the
samples are exposed when they are cut in the
same place each time.
A
B
Restriction
Enzymes
Polymorphism is like a set of DNA puzzle pieces unique to
only you, to create a pattern called a DNA fingerprint.
Restriction Enzymes are derived from
bacteria with the ability to cut DNA from
invading organisms such as a viruses,
before the virus takes control of the cell
The process where DNA can is separated according to
size and electrical charge by applying an electric
current to them.
 The current forces the molecules through pores in a thin
layer of gel.
 DNA is negatively charged so it runs toward the
positive pole



To visualize the DNA
fragments and sort them
according to size
DNA samples are loaded
into a gel and exposed to
electrical currents
 Fragments run through the
gel at different rates
 smaller = faster
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









Gloves throughout Lab
Power source
Chamber & casting trey
Agarose gel with wells
TAE Buffer
Distilled H20
Micropipette and tips
Dye
Light box
DNA /RFLP Samples
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 Activity 1.3.1.

Student Response Sheet

Student read Introduction
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





1. Obtain 4 micro-centrifuge tubes
2. Label tubes 1-4 Very Important to : Note the
content of each tube in your lab journal. You will
need to know what is in each tube. Don’t get them
mixed up!!!
3. Dispense Enzyme Reaction Buffer into 4 tubes.
4 Dispense DNA and Enzymes into 4 tubes.
5. Incubate in water bath X 45 min.
6. Begin Student Resource Sheet.
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



1. Obtain your 4 tubes
2. Heat samples plus the DNA marker and DNA
extracted from bone for 2 min at 65 degrees C
3. While cooling practice loading gels
4. draw diagram in lab journal Clearly indicating
which sample is in each well.

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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Place gel in trey, and tray
in chamber.
Be sure the wells are at
the negative end of the
gel and the trey is secure
in the notch
Fill with TAE Buffer this
time, cover gel completely
Fill the wells with the
corresponding sample
Copy table in notes!!!!
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


Don’t poke through the agarose
Keep plunger depressed until after you have
raised the micropipetter . To prevent the reuptake of sample out of the well, remember to
keep the plunger depressed until you completely
lift the micropipettor out of the gel
Be sure the voltage is set at 150 and the timer is
set for 15 minutes
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Check polarity! Be sure the DNA sample is at top
of the negative pole (black) and will run down
toward the positive
 Alarm will sound after 15 minutes…check back
every 2-5m if incomplete
 Create staining solution while you wait: 10mL of
10X Flashblue concentrate + 90mL distilled
water
 Turn off the power supply when the dye is near
the bottom edge of the gel
 Be careful to not allow the dye to run off the
edge of the gel

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
If the polarity is backwards, the DNA will
migrate out of the well and off the short end
of the gel. If the mistake is caught in time, the
polarity can be reversed and the DNA will
migrate back into the well and then through
the longer portion of the gel.
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
Often the DNA fragment
bands can be observed
directly after
electrophoresis without
further treatment. If the
bands are faint or appear
to be missing, the gel can
be soaked in the diluted
Carolina Blue dye for 30
minutes and then
washed with distilled
water
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
The DNA
fragments
stained with a
dye and can be
observed as lines
or bands in the
gel when viewed
on a light box.
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
4.How can tools of molecular biology be
used to compare the DNA of 2
individuals?

5.What are restriction enzymes?

6.What are restriction fragment length
polymorphisms?
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
Gel Electrophoresis Virtual Lab

http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/lab/gel


DNA Interactive: Gel Electrophoresis
http:www.dnai.org/text/mediashowcase/index2.ht
ml?id=1014
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
7. What is gel electrophoresis and how
can the results of this technique be
interpreted?
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


Analyze the DNA
Discuss results and conclusions
Conclusion Questions
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
Introduces Activity 1.3.2 Careers in Identity.
Career Journal for Forensic Anthropologist

Distribute the Biomedical Sciences
Documentation Protocol and review
documentation of their sources.

Distribute Rubric and go over grading

Students complete Activity 1.3.2 individually.
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




Gives your work credibility
Allows reader to look up sources to obtain
more information
Citation gives credit to original author.
Source is documented in 2 places in APA
style.
1st, In the text and 2nd at the end of
document in the reference list.
111
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
Project 1.3.3 -Who Are You:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=pla
yer_detailpage&v=Qh8SsaCWY-s

http://www.theguardian.com/world/video/20
10/oct/27/us-military-biometric-data-a
Fghanistan-video (start at 2:40 time)

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
In this project you will be a team of 3 to design a
security plan using biometrics for your new
Client. Using:





Power Point Presentation
Oral Presentation
Answering any questions
Convince you client to buy
Brain storm: what Body systems are involved in
Biometric Techniques.
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
8. How can the field of biometrics be used to
verify and protect identity?

Discuss Ethical Issues in biometrics abd tge
yse if biology in identity.


Discuss how DNA can be used in biometrics.
Debate how close we are to Identifying
people in an instant using DNA sample.
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
Key Concepts from all 3 units.
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