CFI Workshop Module 8, Core Topic 15 - Stick-n

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Stick-n-Rudder
Flight Training, LLC™
Flight training begins on the
ground, not in the air.™
Tyra Cerny, CFI, AGI, IGI
Scott Johnson, CFI, AGI
www.sticknrudder.com
Presented to: Instructors and Pilot Examiners
By: The FAASTeam
Date: July 1 to September 30, 2010
Federal Aviation
Administration
FAASTeam
CFI Workshop 8
Module 8, Core Topics 15:
Pilot Deviations Including
Runway Incursions
Presented to: Instructors and Pilot Examiners
By: The FAASTeam
Date: July 1 to September 30, 2010
Federal Aviation
Administration
FAASTeam CFI Workshop 8
July 1 through September 30, 2010
Federal Aviation
Administration
3
FAASTeam CFI Workshop 8
Module 8 – Core Topic 15
Pilot Deviations, Including Runway
Incursions:
• Educate your students to recognize the potential
for Pilot Deviations during all Areas of Operation
• Create and demonstrate situations that will
enable students to experience various types of
Pilot Deviations first hand in the training
environment.
• Teach and practice strategies to mitigate Pilot
Deviations dependant on distractions and/or
cockpit confusion.
Are all of your students registered at FAASafety.gov?
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July 1 through September 30, 2010
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What is a Runway Incursion?
• Any occurrence at an airport involving the
incorrect presence of an aircraft, vehicle, or
person on the protected area of a surface
designated for the landing and take-off of
aircraft.
• Basically, crossing the hold short lines of a
runway you haven’t been cleared to cross.
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The Triple T ~ Tyra’s Top Ten
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The Triple T ~ Tyra’s Top Ten
1.
See the Big Picture
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The Triple T ~ Tyra’s Top Ten
2.
Situational Awareness
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The Triple T ~ Tyra’s Top Ten
3.
Speak Clearly
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The Triple T ~ Tyra’s Top Ten
4.
Concise
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The Triple T ~ Tyra’s Top Ten
5.
Copy Clearances
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The Triple T ~ Tyra’s Top Ten
6.
Signs & Markings
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The Triple T ~ Tyra’s Top Ten
7.
Sterile Cockpit
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The Triple T ~ Tyra’s Top Ten
8.
Admit When Lost
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The Triple T ~ Tyra’s Top Ten
9.
Right Frequencies – ground, tower, departure
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The Triple T ~ Tyra’s Top Ten
10. Repeat Clearances
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The Triple T ~ Tyra’s Top Ten
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
See the Big Picture
Situational Awareness
Speak Clearly
Concise
Copy Clearances
Signs & Markings
Sterile Cockpit
Admit When Lost
Right Frequencies – ground, tower, departure
Repeat Clearances
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July 1 through September 30, 2010
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Runway Incursion Challenge
• 58 million landings and
takeoffs last year *
• Thousands of runway
crossings per day!
• Human error is a certainty
• Technology has limitations
• Causes – Consequences
are global in nature
Source: * FAA Runway Safety Fact Sheet
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Pilots are Very Confident by Nature
and by Culture
•
•
•
•
•
I’m a professional!
I’ve trained hard and long for this!
I’ve done it thousands of times!
I’m current and very proficient!
What could possibly go wrong???
FAASTeam CFI Workshop 8
July 1 through September 30, 2010
Federal Aviation
Administration
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FAASTeam CFI Workshop 8
July 1 through September 30, 2010
Federal Aviation
Administration
22
FAASTeam CFI Workshop 8
July 1 through September 30, 2010
Federal Aviation
Administration
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FAASTeam CFI Workshop 8
July 1 through September 30, 2010
Federal Aviation
Administration
24
FAASTeam CFI Workshop 8
July 1 through September 30, 2010
Federal Aviation
Administration
25
FAASTeam CFI Workshop 8
July 1 through September 30, 2010
Federal Aviation
Administration
26
FAASTeam CFI Workshop 8
July 1 through September 30, 2010
Federal Aviation
Administration
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FAASTeam CFI Workshop 8
July 1 through September 30, 2010
Federal Aviation
Administration
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FAASTeam CFI Workshop 8
July 1 through September 30, 2010
Federal Aviation
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FAASTeam CFI Workshop 8
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Federal Aviation
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What can you do to reduce
runway incursions?
•
•
•
•
•
•
Plan your surface operations
Employ cockpit discipline
Understand taxi procedures
Make proper use of aircraft lights
Use proper communication techniques
Understand/recognize airport signs and
markings
• STAY ALERT – Look both ways prior to
crossing any runways!
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Planning Surface Operations
• Pre plan taxi routes at departure and
destination airports
• Ensure you have an accurate, up to date
airport diagram available
• Review NOTAM’s and ATIS for possible
construction impacts – rwy/twy closures
• Look for “hot spots”
– Jeppesen airport diagrams – FAA charts
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Verify Compass heading to confirm proper
runway taxiway selection.
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Cockpit Discipline
• Minimize distractions during critical phases
– Taxi for takeoff is where majority of RIs occur
– Delay checklists until off the runway
• Recognize when you need to have “heads up”
– Any time the plane is moving but…
– Especially when approaching a runway or an intersecting taxiway
• Write down taxi routes and clearances
– From RIIEP – 72% of pilots who had incursion DID NOT
• Use the airport diagram during taxi
– From RIIEP – 47% of pilots who had Rwy inc DID NOT
• Verbalize critical instructions to other crew members
– Hold Short or Crossing instructions
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Pilot Deviations What’s the Problem?
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• TFR – Temporary Flight Restriction
• SFRA – Special Flight Rules Area
• MOA – Military Operations Area
• ADIZ – Air Defense Identification Zone
• Prohibited – From the surface to defined limit
• Alert – Informs of a high volume of aerial
activity
• Warning – Areas 3 NM beyond the US coast,
possible hazardous activity
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Lack of Preparation
• Always have your Airport Diagram with you
– Print them off @ naco.faa.gov “Free Digital
Products”
– Write all over them, take notes, circle FBO’s,
Highlight taxi routes…
• Before you call Ground, you should have
already identified 1 or 2 of the most likely
taxi routes. If you can’t point to your entire
route on the airport out the window, you’re
not ready to call Ground yet
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Clear Left? Clear Right? Cleared
to Cross?
• When you’re approaching a Runway, verify a
few things
• 100 yards away, not 10’, from the Runway hold
lines, begin to look out for yourself
• “Clear left” by looking left, don’t just say it
• “Clear right” by looking right, don’t just say it
• “Cleared to cross” by confirming with your
notes or Ground Control
• Or “Holding Short”
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Ask for a “Progressive Taxi”
• If a couple of clarifications aren’t enough to
remove all doubt of a perfect taxi, get the
Progressive
• Ignore the condescending speech, use the
help
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SITUATIONAL AWARENESS WILL SAVE YOUR LIFE!
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Take the Taxi as seriously as the
flight
• Think about it…
• It’s easier to measure your mistakes when on the
airport surface vs. in the air
• There are as many, if not more, opportunities to
violate a regulation on the ground as in the air
• There are dramatically more collision hazards
packed into this little space at any given time
when compared to in flight operations…airports
are the center of flight activity
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Sterile Cockpit during taxi
• Professional cockpits allow NO non-essential
communication when the aircraft is below
10,000’ MSL
• For us in General Aviation airplanes, maintain
a sterile cockpit from engine start until
completing the cruise checklist. Then resume
from beginning the before landing checklist
until engine shut down.
• Do not allow external distractions to cause a
mistake or oversight on the airport surface.
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The perfect passenger?
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FAASTeam CFI Workshop 8
Module 8, Core Topic #15
Questions?
Comments?
Ideas?
Quiz time ~
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1. The before take-off checklist should be completed while
taxing.
a. True
b. False
2. At a controlled airport, if you are unsure of where to taxi
after landing, you should
a. Consult your taxi chart
b. Ask ATC
c. Ask you co-pilot or passenger
d. Taxi around until you find your destination on the
airport.
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3. True or False; As of June 2010, Runway Incursions are
on a “downward” trend.
4. Should the pilot read-back “all” takeoff and landing
clearances, including the runway designator??
5. Only “read-back” an ATC clearance when on an “IFR”
flight plan. True or False?
FAASTeam CFI Workshop 8
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6. Which of the following areas are major contributors to
Pilot Deviations in general?
a. Communications
b. Airport Knowledge
c. Cockpit procedures for maintaining orientation
d. Distraction
e. All of the above
Answers Follow –
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1. The before take-off checklist should be completed while
taxing.
a. True
b. False
b. False - Airplane Flying Handbook
2. At a controlled airport, if you are unsure of where to taxi
after landing, you should
a. Consult your taxi chart
b. Ask ATC
c. Ask you co-pilot or passenger
d. Taxi around until you find your destination on the
airport.
b. Ask ATC - Airplane Flying Handbook
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3. True or False; As of June 2010, Runway Incursions are
on a “downward” trend.
True, RI’s so far during FY 2010 have decreased
slightly - Office of Runway Safety; FAA.
4. Should the pilot read-back “all” takeoff and landing
clearances, including the runway designator??
“YES” – FAA, Office of Runway Safety.
5. Only “read-back” an ATC clearance when on an “IFR”
flight plan. True or False?
“False’ – AIM, Section 5 and Airplane Flying
Handbook
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6. Which of the following areas are major contributors to
Pilot Deviations in general?
a. Communications
b. Airport Knowledge
c. Cockpit procedures for maintaining orientation
d. Distraction
e. All of the above
e. All of the above - Airplane Flying Handbook (FAAH-8083-3A) page 1-5
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FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6
Take a 5 minute Break!
When we return:
Reading between the lines and saying what
ATC wants you to say.
Would you like a Special with that?
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This Completes CFI Workshop Module 8
AND
The First CFI Workshop Series
CONGRATULATIONS!
Be sure to have your attendance record validated!
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July 1 through September 30, 2010
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Administration
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Stick-n-Rudder
Flight Training, LLC™
Flight training begins on the
ground, not in the air.™
Tyra Cerny, CFI, AGI, IGI
Scott Johnson, CFI, AGI
www.sticknrudder.com
Presented to: Instructors and Pilot Examiners
By: The FAASTeam
Date: July 1 to September 30, 2010
Federal Aviation
Administration

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