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China Debate Education Network
Constructing Arguments for the
Prime Minister
首相的立论
翻译:曾庆熹
Prior to Preparing the Speech:
Analyze the Motion
• Most motions can be interpreted in a number of different
ways.
• All debaters (Opposition as well as Government) need to focus
some attention on what they expect will be the focus and
direction of the debate given the motion.
• Is this motion about a particular value or value system? Does
the motion advocate a change in policy or action?
准备陈词内容之前:
分析辩题
• 大多数辩题都有很多种不同的阐释方式
• 所有辩手(正反方皆是) 应当注意由辩题所设定的预期内
容*和讨论方向。
• 这个辩题是否是关于一种特定的价值观或价值观体系?
这个辩题是否是主张政策或行动上的改变?
*译者注:意即人们看到该辩题时大都会想到的应该会被讨论的内容
Constructing the Case:
Three Steps
• 1. Define and interpret the motion
• 2. Specify the position the Government Team
will defend. Frequently, but not always, by
presenting a model of the motion
• 3. Create a case for the motion (or model)
立论: 三步
• 1. 定义并阐释辩题
• 2. 明确正方要辩护的立场。 通常(但不是
所有)情况下,通过设立一个讨论模型来
做到这一点。
• 3. 为辩题(或讨论模型)立论
Step One: Defining And
Interpreting the Motion
第一步:定义并阐释辩题
• The First Government Team has the right to
define and interpret the motion.正上队有权力定
义和阐释辩题
• Parallel to this right is the responsibility to
define and interpret the motion in a
reasonable fashion.与责任相对的,正上队有责任以合
理的方式去定义和阐释辩题
Step One: Defining And Interpreting
the Motion (continued)
• Defining the motion includes defining any
words or phrases that:
– Are ambiguous
– Might not be understood
• Interpreting the motion includes narrowing
and focusing the topic for debate
– focus on the issues debated in the public forum
– Narrow and focus for the purpose of creating a
good debate, not just to help yourself win the
debate.
第一步:定义并阐释辩题
(续)
• 定义辩题是对辩题中以下内容的定义:
– 模棱两可的
– 可能不好理解的
• 阐释辩题是窄化和聚焦辩论讨论的对象:
– 聚焦公众舆论关注并讨论的事项
– 以创造一场有价值的辩论为目的去阐释,而不能仅仅
是以帮助你自己赢得比赛为目的。
Step Two: Presenting The Model
• A model is specific illustration of the position the
Government team will defend.
• Some motions may not require models:
– Those that evaluate specific objects according to certain
values. (Capital punishment is unjust).
– Those that evaluate rather specific policies. (The United
States should completely ban capital punishment).
• Models are needed when the interpretation of the
government team needs to be more specific than the
motion itself. (The people’s Republic of China should
revise it’s one-child policy).
第二步: 设立讨论模型
• 讨论模型是正方将辩护的立场中的一个具体案例
• 有些辩题并不需要设立讨论模型:
– 对某一对象进行价值判断的. (例如:死刑是非正义的)
– 本身已经给出相当具体的政策的. (例如:美国应全面禁
止死刑).
• 什么时候需要设立讨论模型:正方对辩题的阐释
需要比辩题本身更加具体化时. (例如:中国应修订计
划生育政策).
Step Two: Presenting The Model
第二步: 设立讨论模型
• If the motion is about a policy or action, and if that
policy or action needs further specification, then a
model is appropriate. 如果辩题是有关政策或行动的,且有关
政策或行动需要进一步具体化,那么设立讨论模型是适当的。
• In such a case, then model should probably contain
at least three things:这种情况下,模型应当至少包含以下三点
– Who is the actor? 行为主体
– What is the proposed action? 建议采取的行动
– Are any other details of the proposal needed?建议行动的有
关细节
Step Three: Creating a Case
Constructing Arguments
for the Motion
第三步: 立论
为辩题建立诸论点
• Case Defined: A case consists of one or more
arguments in support of the motion (or the model).
• 立论的定义:一个立论包含一个或多个支撑辩题(或讨
论模型)的论点
Two Examples两例
• Case for a policy motion
为政策性辩题立论
• Case for a value motion
为价值性辩题立论
These examples are taken from a previous lesson on “Combining Arguments
Coherently.) 下面的例子是从前一课程“论点的紧密组合”中选取的。
In the following examples, the case consists of a single argument. In most
cases, a case will consist of a series of arguments. 在下面的例子中,立论都是
由一个论点组成的。事实上,在绝大多数情况下,立论都是由多个论点组成的。
Case for a Policy Motion
为政策性辩题立论
• Describe features of the current system and contrast
those features with those of your policy proposal.
描述现状特点,通过对比现状来说明你所主张的政策。
• Associate that feature to a consequence. Create a
cause and effect relationship between that feature of
your policy proposal and a consequence. 联系政策与
效果。在政策和效果间建立起因果关系。
• Evaluate the consequence of the policy.
评价政策效果。
Policy Motion Example:
Nations of the world should provide a minimum
level of education to all their citizens.
• Main argument: Increasing funding and
infrastructure for education will improve
people’s lives by helping to alleviate poverty
– (Describe) The Government proposal substantially changes
the funding and infrastructure of the present system
– (Associate) Funding and infrastructure are causally related
to access to secondary education
– (Evaluate) Increased access to secondary education will
help relieve poverty and improve people’s lives.
• Can have additional main arguments if desired
政策性辩题举例:
世界各国应当为他们的人民提供最基本的教育
• 主论点: 增加资金和基础设施的投入将有助于避免贫困,
从而提高人民生活水平。
– (描述) 正方政策主张将强有力地改变现有资金和基础设
施的状况
– (联系) 资金和基础设施与中等教育入学情况有因果关系
– (评价) 增加中等教育入学将有助于缓解贫困和改善人民
生活。
• 如有必要可增加新论点
Case for a Value Motion
为价值性辩题立论
• Describe a feature of the thing to be
evaluated.描述被评价对象的特征
• Associate that feature with some
consequence. 将这些特征与某些效果联系起来
• Evaluate that consequence评价这些效果
Value Motion Example: Traditional Chinese
medicine is a useful part of an overall health
care system.
• Main Argument: TCM has advantages over
surgery.
• Describe a feature: Traditional Chinese medicine is non
invasive.
• Associate with consequence
– Non-invasive techniques help patients
– Non-invasive techniques prevent harm to the patient
• Evaluate the consequences
– Positive evaluation of acupuncture
– Negative evaluation of surgery
– Additional main argument if needed
价值性辩题举例:
中医是医疗保健体系中有用的一部分
• 主论点: 中医较之于手术有自身优势
• 描述特征: 中医是非侵入性的。
• 联系效果:
– 非侵入性技术能帮助病人
– 非侵入性技术能避免对病人的伤害
• 评价效果:
– 针灸等中医技术的积极作用
– 手术的消极作用
– 如果需要可增加新论点
Role of the Deputy Prime Minister
• Refute the arguments introduced by the
Leader of Opposition
• Rebuild the case offered by the Prime Minister
– Refute any arguments raised against the case by
the Leader of Opposition
– Add additional evidence and examples as needed
• Add one or more new arguments to the case
as presented by the Prime Minister
副首相的职责
• 反驳反方领袖的论点
• 优化首相立论
– 反驳由反方领袖提出的攻击我方立论的论点
– 如有需要可增加新证据或例子
• 为首相的立论增加一个或多个新论点

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