SYLLABUS: Unit I SOLAR RESOURCES : Passage through the atmosphere; global distribution; optimal system geometry, Insolation amount available on earth; Resource estimation; Solar data; Solar radiation spectrum; Seasonal and daily variation; Effect of Tilt Angle. Unit II SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAICS: The Photo Voltaic effect; Spectral response; p-n junction; different types of photovoltaic cells; PV cell characteristics; Effect of variation of temperature; insolation level & tilt angle on the characteristics; equivalent circuits; temperature effects on conversion efficiency; Fabrication and costs of PV cell. Unit III SOLAR THERMAL: Principles of applied heat transfer, solar thermal collectors: Glazing, evacuation, selective surfaces, concentrators. Solar thermal applications: water and space heating; solar ponds; dryers; distillation; solar cooker. Passive Solar design. Unit IV SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS: Photovoltaic modules; module specifications; module hot spots; bypass diodes; PV arrays and PV systems; cabling; earthling and lightning protection. Battery storage: Lead and Nickel cadmium batteries; Charge regulators; LVD circuit; Voltage and current Source Inverters. Tracking Systems; Maximum power point tracking. Unit V SYSTEM APPLICATIONS : Autonomous PV system; Grid Linked PV systems; Remote application of Photovoltaic’s; System sizing; System Performance; Economics and future prospects. Text Books: 1. Solar Energy: Principles of Thermal Collection and Storage by S.P.Sukhatme: TMH 2. Solar Energy Utilization Volume-1 &2 by G.D.Rai- Khanna Publishers Reference Books: 1. Solar Electricity Handbook-2010 By Micheal Boxwell – Green Stream publishing 2. Non conventional Energy by G.D.Rai- Khanna Publishers Unit -I SOLAR RESOURCES Passage through the atmosphere & global distribution optimal system geometry Insolation amount available on earth Resource estimation; Solar data Solar radiation spectrum; Seasonal and daily variation Effect of Tilt Angle. Electricity sector in India The electricity sector in India supplies the world's 6th largest energy consumer, accounting for 3.4% of global energy consumption by more than 17% of global population. The Energy policy of India is predominantly controlled by the Government of India's, Ministry of Power, Ministry of Coal and Ministry of New Renewable Energy and administered locally by Public Sector Undertakings (PSUs). WIND-SOLAR-DIESEL TRI-BRID POWER SYSTEM Power Center & Inverter Wind Generator (5 kVA) Solar Panels (Total 5 kVA) 75 W/Panel 45 Panels DG Set (5 kVA) Data Center Battery Bank (60 Nos) 64.75% from thermal power plants, 21.73% from hydroelectric power plants, 2.78% from nuclear power plants. & 10.73% from Renewable Energy Sources. More than 50% of India's commercial energy demand is met through the country's vast coal reserves. The country has also invested heavily in recent years in renewable energy utilization, especially wind energy. In 2010, India's installed wind generated electric capacity was 13,064 MW. Additionally, India has committed massive amount of funds for the construction of various nuclear reactors which would generate at least 30,000 MW. In July 2009, India unveiled a $19 billion plan to produce 20,000 MW of solar power by 2022. Due to the fast-paced growth of India's economy, the country's energy demand has grown an average of 3.6% per annum over the past 30 years. In December 2010, the installed power generation capacity of India stood at 165,000 MW. The Indian government has set a modest target to add approximately 78,000 MW of installed generation capacity by 2012 . The total demand for electricity in India is expected to cross 950,000 MW by 2030. Total Installed Capacity (as on 28-02-2011) is 171,926.40 MW Renewable energy in India is a sector that is still undeveloped. India was the first country in the world to set up a ministry of non-conventional energy resources, in early 1980s. However its success has been very spotty. In recent years India has been lagging behind other nations in the use of renewable energy (RE). The share of RE in the energy sector is less than 8% of India's total energy needs. Renewable energy in India comes under the purview of the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy. Solar power in India The first Indian solar thermal power project (2X50MW) is in progress in Phalodi (Rajasthan), and is constructed by CORPORATE ISPAT ALLOY LTD. The solar thermal power plant has cost 4 times as much as the coal based steam thermal power plant. India's largest photovoltaic (PV) power plants Name of Plant DC Peak Power (MW) Notes Sivaganga Photovoltaic Plant 5 Completed December 2010 Kolar Photovoltaic Plant 3 Completed May 2010 Itnal Photovoltaic Plant, Belgaum 3 Completed April 2010 Azure Power - Photovoltaic Plant 2 2009 Jamuria Photovoltaic Plant 2 2009 NDPC Photovoltaic Plant 1 2010 Thyagaraj stadium Plant-Delhi 1 April, 2010 Gandhinagar Solar Plant 1 January 21, 2011 Tata - Mulshi, Maharashtra 3 Commissioned April 2011 Azure Power - Sabarkantha, Gujarat 5 Commissioned June 2011 Moser Baer - Patan, Gujarat Tata - Mayiladuthurai, Tamil Nadu 30 1 To Be Commissioned July 2011 Commissioned July 2011 What is Solar Energy? Originates with the thermonuclear fusion reactions occurring in the sun. Represents the entire electromagnetic radiation (visible light, infrared, ultraviolet, x-rays, and radio waves). Advantages and Disadvantages • Advantages • Disadvantages • All chemical and radioactive polluting byproducts of the thermonuclear reactions remain behind on the sun, while only pure radiant energy reaches the Earth. • Energy reaching the earth is incredible. By one calculation, 30 days of sunshine striking the Earth have the energy equivalent of the total of all the planet’s fossil fuels, both used and unused! • Sun does not shine consistently. • Solar energy is a diffuse source. To harness it, we must concentrate it into an amount and from that we can use, such as heat and electricity. • Addressed by approaching the problem through: 1) collection, 2) conversion, 3) storage. Passage through the atmosphere How much solar energy? The surface receives about 51% of the total solar energy that reaches the Earth. Only this amount is usable. At any given point on Earth the amount of insolation (solar energy) available to heat the surface depends on 3 factors : 1) Angle of Insolation 2) Duration of Insolation 3) Energy Absorption and Reflection by the atmosphere and Earth’s surface These Factors Effect the intensity of Insolation: at a given point, the greater the intensity, the higher the average temperature of that location 1.)Angle of Insolation (AOI) The angle of the sun’s rays hitting the earth Measured from the Horizon up to position of the sun -This angle is dependent on: A.)Time of day: Noon has the greatest Angle of Ins. When the sun is most directly overhead: At 90ͦ, the sun hits the earth perpendicularly= Vertical Rays B.)Tilt of the Earth: Greater AOI when the sun is directly overhead (90ͦ AOI) C.)Latitude: only between the equator and tropics it is possible for the suns rays to be vertical (directly overhead) How the angle at which light hits the surface effects INTENSITY 2.)Duration of Insolation (DOI) = time from sunrise to sunset Rule of thumb: Any point on earth receives the most heat when the sun is highest in the sky and when the duration is the longest (longer days) *Duration varies with seasons and Latitude. Greatest DOI is on June 21st-The further north you go, the longer the day lasts (NY=42ͦ N) Equinoxes Sun is directly overhead Spring(March 21): at 0ͦ Fall (Sept. 23): at 0 ͦ Solstices Summer(June 21):23 ½ ͦ N Winter (Dec 21): 23 ½ ͦ S Absorption of Insolation (solar energy) • Darker objects absorb energy faster than lighter but lose energy faster (Easy Come, Easy Go) (Ex: Land and Sea) • The Atm:Ozone absorbs short wave radiation (gamma, beta x-rays) H20(g) and CO2 absorb long wave radiation (infrared) • Land and water ABSORB visible light and reradiate this solar energy back out as infrared (long wave) TERRESTRIAL radiation Solar Energy Potential • As of February 2006, Photovoltaic technology accounted for less than 1% of worldwide electricity generation. • The amount of solar energy that reaches the Earth’s surface every hour is greater than humankind’s total demand for energy in one year SOLAR RADIATION Atmospheric Effects: Solar radiation is absorbed, scattered and reflected by components of the atmosphere. The amount of radiation reaching the earth is less than what entered the top of the atmosphere. We classify it in two categories: Direct Radiation: radiation from the sun that reaches the earth without scattering. Diffuse Radiation: radiation that is scattered by the atmosphere and clouds. Solar Radiation Solar Radiation Measurement: Measurement of solar radiation are important because of increasing number of solar heating and cooling applications and the need for accurate solar irradiation data to predict performance. Two types of instruments: 1. Pyreheliometer 2. Pyranometer SOLAR RADIATION DATA Most of the data on solar radiation received on the surface of the earth are measured by solarimeter which give readings for instantaneous measurements at rate throughout the day total radiation on a horizontal surface. India lies between latitude 7o and 37oN and receives an annual average intensity of solar radiation between 16700-29260 KJ/m2/day (400-700 Cal/Cm2/day). Peak values are generally measured in April or May with parts of Rajasthan and Gujarat receiving over 25100 KJ/m2/day (600 Cal/Cm2/day). During the monsoon and winter months the daily solar radiation decreases to about 16700 KJ/m2/day (400 Cal/Cm2/day). The annual daily diffuse radiation received over the whole country is observed to be about 7300 KJ/m2/day . The minimum values of diffuse radiation measured over many parts of the country during Nov & Dec are between 3135-4180 KJ/m2/day while maximum values measured over the whole country are about 12550 KJ/m2/day specially in July in Gujarat. l Estimation of Average So ar Radiation: Monthly average horizontal solar radiation Hav was given by Angstrom (1924) is ' ' ' n H av H o a b N ' ' where a & b are arbitrary constants ' ' ( Freitz 1951 ; a 0 . 35 , b 0 . 61 ) ' H o the monthly avg . horizontal solar radiation for a clear day n avg . daily hours of bright sunshine for same period N max .. daily hours of bright sunshine for same period Constant a and b for some Indian Towns Location a b Location a b Ahmadabad 0.28 0.48 Mangalore 0.27 0.43 Bangalore 0.18 0.64 Shillong 0.22 0.57 Baroda 0.28 0.48 Srinagar 0.35 0.40 Bhopal 0.27 0.50 Trivendrum 0.37 0.39 Calcutta 0.28 0.42 Vishakhapatnam 0.28 0.47 Jodhapur 0.33 0.46 New Delhi 0.25 0.57 Madras 0.30 0.44 Roorkee 0.25 0.56 Array orientation is defined by two angles: 1. Tilt angle is the vertical angle between the horizontal and the array surface. • Maximum energy gain will be achieved by orienting the array surface at a tilt angle close to the value of the local latitude – In high latitudes arrays should be very steep and vice versa. • For optimal performance the tilt angle should be adjusted from the latitude angle by an amount equal to the average declination during that time. • During the summer the average declination is +15º, so we should have a tilt of latitude minus 15º to make the array perpendicular to the average solar path –during the summer. • Array Azimuth angle will be optimal when that array is due south. • Sun trackers allow the PV array to change the tilt angle, the azimuth angle, or both –generally is not considered cannot be made cost effective.