Observing Weather and Climate FROM THE GROUND UP A Nationwide Network of Networks R. E. Carbone 10 August 2009 AMS Summer Community Meeting Weather and Climate Enterprise Commission 1 Committee on Developing Mesoscale Meteorological Observational Capabilities to Meet Multiple National Needs. Sponsors: NOAA, NASA, EPA, DOT, DHS, OFCM RICHARD E. (RIT) CARBONE (Chair) NCAR, Boulder, CO JAMES BLOCK DTN/Meteorlogix, Minneapolis, MN S. EDWARD BOSELLY Weather Solutions Group, Olympia, WA GREGORY R. CARMICHAEL University of Iowa, Iowa City FREDERICK H. CARR University of Oklahoma, Norman V. (CHANDRA) CHANDRASEKAR Colorado State University, Fort Collins EVE GRUNTFEST NCAR, Boulder, CO 2 RAYMOND M. HOFF University of Maryland Baltimore Co. WITOLD F. KRAJEWSKI University of Iowa, Iowa City MARGARET A. LEMONE NCAR, Boulder, CO JAMES F.W. PURDOM Colorado State University, Fort Collins THOMAS W. SCHLATTER University of Colorado, Boulder EUGENE S. TAKLE Iowa State University, Ames JAY TITLOW Weatherflow, Inc., Poquoson, VA Liaison: Walter F. Dabberdt Board of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate NRC Staff: CURTIS MARSHALL Senior Program Officer ROB GREENWAY, Senior Program Assistant Study Tasks, Goals, Foci Develop an “overarching vision” for an integrated, flexible, adaptive, and multi-purpose network We did not engage in network design. 3 Focus on requirements for the United States and adjacent coastal zones Emphasize the planetary boundary layer (~2 meters below the surface to 2-3 km above) Identify steps to develop a network that meets “multiple national needs” in a cost-effective manner. Multiple National Needs We framed the whole study around major applications. Health and Safety Transportation Food and Water 4 Energy Security How should we define mesoscale observations?* Those that resolve mesoscale structure and detect events? Those that enable dynamical prediction? Non-meteorological obs having influence on weather? Environmental conditions influenced by weather? All of the above. Which raises the bar considerably * In the context of satellites and the global obs system Diverse Players energetic and chaotic Complex Widely vested Driven by local market forces Countless Users and Uses Thousands of providers 17 Federal Agencies Multiple Agencies in all States Municipalities Water Districts Various Local Authorities Agricultural Producers Fortune 500 Corporations Countless small businesses Universities, Research Labs K-12 Schools Enthusiasts and hobbyists 6 Current Status energetic and chaotic Weaknesses Mostly locally driven Lacking a national strategy Disparate systems Single application Unknown exposures Unknown standards Various comms protocols A condition of “false sparsity” Spatial gaps and sensor gaps Few vertical profiles Soil moisture Oklahoma, “gold Standard” or “lunatic fringe” ?? Strengths dense surface networks responsive to local needs grass roots participation near population centers regional collectives Increased coordination is indicated. What’s needed to improve functionality and increase benefits to the nation? Provide an organizational framework for coordination, integration and interoperability Make far better use of what we have to satisfy multiple national applications Augment current observations in the strategic gaps identified 8 A Challenge To preserve and enhance the rich diversity of investment (mainly motivated by unique local interests) While also introducing sufficient coordination To realize increased benefits for multiple national needs. 9 What Observations are Needed? And what enhancements do these infer? Basic Infrastructure to Monitor and Predict Mesoscale Weather Energy Security Public Health and Safety Transportation Water Resources and Food Production We looked for “common threads” among these. We also discussed the benefits to be derived for and from research. A Phenomenological Approach was used for core weather monitoring and prediction components Common Threads X important gaps may exist; so inadequate that no network can be said to exist. Inferred Priorities from Common Threads MOST NEEDED: Profile Data Height and structure of the PBL Soil moisture and temperature profiles High resolution vertical profiles of humidity ABOVE THE SURFACE LAYER: carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, ozone, and particulate matter < 2.5µ microns NEEDED: Direct and diffuse radiation High vertical resolution profiles of wind and temperature Sub-surface temperature profiles (e.g., under pavement) Icing near the surface Surface turbulence parameters Urban, Coastal and Mountainous Regions have added complexity, increased societal impact, and are especially in need of augmentation. 13 The Vision To create the network of our dreams… A Network of Networks (NoN), serving multiple applications, jointly provided and used by government, industry, academia and the public. NoN could be enabled to dynamically configure customized networks….. As specified by the users themselves. Albeit at different levels of effectiveness, this can be implemented with or without additional observing systems. Steps to Ensure Progress 15 Key Attributes of an Idealized NoN Stability and Continuity Incentives to Participate Metadata, Metadata, Metadata Access to More and Better Data Establish and protect data/IP rights Rolling review of societal needs, gaps, requirements Flexibility to evolve and adapt to new conditions across sectors A local presence for regular contact with providers and stakeholders 16 Essential Core Services We recommend 13 enabling services: Expert assistance and monetary incentives to maintain standards Knowledge of data available and suitable to one’s own application Ease of access to custom-configured sets of observations/analyses Archival of data commensurate with useful lifetimes Economy of access to products and services from other providers The importance of extensive metadata is absolutely critical to the effectiveness of an NoN. 17 categories of metadata are defined Organizational Model Options Publicly Chartered, Private Non-Profit Corporation Privately Chartered Non-Profit Corporation (501c3 – e.g., ESIP) Confederation of Federal Agencies Seeded Viral NoN x Lead Federal Agency X Multi-level Government Confederation x Government-Industry Confederation x Private For-Profit Corporation We have assumed it is necessary and desirable to engage the full breadth of the mesoscale observations enterprise. 18 We highlighted this option A hybrid “Corporation for Environmental Monitoring” To provide 13 “essential core services” Does not own or operate individual networks. An enabling entity that comes into play only insofar as is necessary to realize the added utility and functionality of an NoN. A minimum degree of centralization for coordination and interoperability. Able to receive and transfer funds from all entities, including Congress. A relatively small but vital fraction of the public-private enterprise. 19 Convene the Stakeholders Stakeholders, including all levels of government, various private sector interests, and academia should collectively develop and implement a plan for achieving and sustaining a mesoscale observing system to meet multiple national needs. a summit to achieve “buy-in”, followed by numerous professional/technical forums….. 20 End User Assessment The stakeholders should commission an independent team of social and physical scientists to conduct end user assessments for selected sectors. current use and value in decision-making; anticipated added value associated with proposed new observations periodic assessments of the societal impact and its value This is envisioned as an ongoing and recurring activity. 21 A Multi-faceted Relationship to Research As users for the conduct of research leverages a national backbone, lower cost, better experiments everywhere As providers of data to the broader NoN improved analyses, “testbeds” to assess the utility of added observations As developers of advanced technologies opportunity to investigate and demonstrate their potential use and value The opportunities may be especially ripe for biosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere interactions (e.g. CASA, NEON, CUASHI). 22 Take Home Message We have a dream: A NoN that is dynamically user-configurable and interoperable. Participating organizations serve only their own mission, while their contributions are enabled to serve multiple national needs. The organization should mirror the stakeholders themselves, being similarly adept and responsive to large agencies, academia, major corporations, local districts, small businesses and volunteers. The most formidable challenge before us is to assemble this grand alliance! 23 Questions? Comments? Committee on Developing Mesoscale Meteorological Observational Capabilities to Meet Multiple National Needs. Irvine, CA, February 2008. Photo courtesy of Peggy LeMone.