Master Presentation - Iowa State University Extension and Outreach

Group Dynamics
Team Building
Iowa Municipal Professionals Institute
July 17, 2013
Presented by
Don Broshar
Alan Vandehaar
Iowa State University Extension
Group Dynamics &
Team Building
• To give you a greater understanding of
group dynamics and team work
• To give you tools and strategies so you
can positively influence group dynamics
and create more effective teams - for a
better work environment at city hall
Group Dynamics & Team Building
Effective Communication
Effective Meetings
Group Phases and Member Roles
Group Dynamics in Action
Dealing with Difficult People
Building Teams in Local Government
Understanding Yourself and Others
Teamwork in Difficult Situations
• Group Dynamics
• A group of two or more people
interacting with each other in a manner
that each person influences and is
influenced by each other person
• Team
• Two or more people working together to
achieve a shared goal
• Team Building / Team Work
• The process of getting people to work
together effectively to achieve a shared
The Biggest Challenge?
• Getting People To
W____ T________!
Communication Exercise
An exercise to
demonstrate effective
Communication Exercise –
What Did We Learn?
• One-way communication is ineffective
when two-way communication is
• Listening is just as effective as talking
• What we say is often not what people
• It is difficult to describe visual pictures
or objects
Planning and Managing
Effective Meetings
Presented at the
Iowa Municipal Clerk’s Institute
Prepared By
Alan Vandehaar
Iowa State University Extension
Why be concerned with
more effective meetings?
• Meetings are a key aspect of the
group decision-making process
• Meetings fundamental for
democratic institutions in the public
Why Do People Meet?
• List some reasons:
Share and/or gather information
Learn about or better understand an idea
Build group support for a goal
Express unity of purpose
Make decisions
Accomplish a goal
Have some fun - social aspects
People meet for many reasons
Recognize people want something from meeting12
Planning and
Managing Effective Meetings
• To Manage (defined):
-To direct, to arrange
-To succeed in accomplishing or achieving
Criteria For Failed Meetings
Two major roadblocks to effective meetings
1. Between participants, different
personal, cultural experiences, various
desired meeting outcomes, personal
2. Lack of action from a meeting; groups
can’t or won’t make a decision; conflict
between talkers and doers
Group Phases
• In planning and conducting effective
meetings it can help if you have some
understanding of group dynamics.
• It is normal for groups, especially new
groups, to go through stages (phases)
Stage 1: Forming
• Group is a bunch of individuals
• Mood is upbeat, uptight, as meeting new
people can be exciting & nerve-wracking
• May be anxiety and confusion
• Members must get acquainted and decide
to cooperate
• Members define their roles, how to make
decisions, set goals
Stage 2: Storming
• Anxiety increases, group morale can sink.
There may be conflict
• Anxiety is normal; essential tension,
• OK for group to disagree
• Manage this stage by generating ideas to
solve problems; Ideas are key to group
Stage 3: Norming
• You begin to act as a group
• Group begins to have identity, clearer
expectations and norms(informal rules)
about group behavior become apparent
• Group has cohesion; members like each
other and want to work; group has value
• OK to share doubts, explore alternative
ideas on ways to set and reach goals
Stage 4: Performing
• Group “gets down to business”
• Leaders delegate responsibilities and
group members go to work
• Group’s resources are fully mobilized to
reach your goal
Stage 5: Transforming
• Groups may go back to earlier phases;
may regroup to tackle a new task
• Group may disband after accomplishing
it’s goals
• Some members may leave group, others
may join
• May be time of joy, sadness, satisfaction
Stages of Group Development
Group Phases
Forming – Storming – Norming – Performing
Of Work
Begin >>>>>>>>>>>>> Time >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
Group Member Roles:
Recognizing The Roles
• People play positive and negative roles in
groups and meeting
• The following exercise is designed to help
us better understand the negative roles
people play, and then develop strategies
to overcome these negative roles
Group Member Roles
• Three Major Roles:
• Task Roles
• Maintenance Roles
• Individual Roles
Task Roles
• A Positive Role
• To solve a problem or
accomplish a task (For example: Take
meeting minutes & send out; set up room for
meeting; election of officers)
Maintenance Roles
• A Positive Role
• To help members of the group
interact more effectively = team
building (For example: encourage all to
participate; promote compromise; strive for
group consensus)
Individual Roles
• Negative Role
• Promote personal needs and selfinterest above the overall interest of
the group
Two Group Skits =
Individual Roles Exercise
• Hands-on activity to illustrate the
individual or negative roles that
people can play in groups/meetings
• Worksheet to identify roles played in
Dealing With
Difficult People
• See Handout:
Strategies For Dealing
Difficult People
Key Elements of Effective
Before the Meeting?
• What should be done before the meeting?
• Make sure there is a reason to meet
• Prepare a written agenda, with others’
• Send out agenda ahead of meeting; may
use email, or postal mail
• Arrange a pleasant physical setting
During the Meeting
• What should be done during the meeting?
• Begin on time
• Consider ice-breakers, team building, use name
tents to welcome new members
• Establish ground rules for all to follow; as a
handout or post a flip chart of these on wall
• Decide how decisions are to be made
(consensus, majority vote, or chairperson)
Meetings Guidelines:
(A.K.A. Ground Rules)
Everyone participates
No one dominates
Listen carefully
Be constructive
Share new ideas
Respect other opinions
One conversation at a time
(Have some fun*) *with limits, as appropriate
During the Meeting
• Follow the agenda
Mail/send before the meeting
Review and approve at start of meeting
State purpose of meeting
Place most important items first
Assign time frame for each item,
allocating time based on importance
During the Meeting
• Assign jobs of recorder, time watcher, other key
roles (“engager”); everyone should have a role in
each meeting; may rotate roles at next meeting
• Record ideas/decisions on flip chart to see, using
bold marker, large print for all to see
• Near end of meeting, verify date, time, place of
next meeting
• In closing, verify assigned responsibilities of
• End on time!
The Agenda
• Agenda is the written order of business;
without an agenda, chaos!
• Agenda can help your group:
- Brainstorm, Get Feedback, Report,
Make Decisions, Plan, Solve Problems
- Essential to start on time, stay focused
on key issues, and end on time
• Includes…
• Date, time, location of meeting; include
name of contact person
• Who writes the agenda?
Chairperson or leader
Ask some other members for input
Let members know ahead of meeting if
they are to report
After the Meeting
• Review the meeting – problems and
• Remind all participants of assignments
and plans for the next meeting
• Send all participants copy of minutes
(mail or email)
The Meeting Environment –
Important Points!
• What are attributes of a good meeting
• Moveable tables and comfortable chairs
• Quiet, well-lighted, well-ventilated
• Comfortable temperature
• Restrooms nearby
• Equipment on hand: flip chart, easel, etc
• Wall space to post flip charts
• Refreshments can build group cohesiveness
• Set up room for all to see and hear others
Setting Up The Meeting Environment
Table Arrangement and Seating Suggestions:
“A” or “B” ? Why?
Components of
Effective Meetings
Skilled leader- knows the “art” of leading meetings
Committed, involved members
Meaningful purpose of group & meeting
Meeting pre-planning
Conducive physical setting, arrangement
Use effective procedure to help group reach it’s
goals in a timely manner
• Consider meeting guidelines
• Use a written agenda
• Deal with difficult people
Strategies to Enhance
1. Clear roles and shared expectations
2. Council orientation & ongoing learning
3. Planning for future – set L. R. goals
4. Good reporting systems- communications
5. Effective meeting management
6. Informal workshops /council work sessions
7. Reduce surprises for council and staff
8. Knowledge of law, policies and procedures
For above, assess areas of needs, work on these
Group Dynamics and
Team Building
Summary Review
What have we learned today?
Group Dynamics and
Team Building
• Group dynamics – interaction
• Understanding yourself and others to
build more effective ‘work teams’
• Biggest Challenge?
• Getting People to Work Together
Group Dynamics and
Team Building
• Group Phases
• Recognize that groups go through phases
and effectiveness can change in each phase
• Group Member Roles
• All members of a group need to play a
(positive) role, contributing to group goals
Group Dynamics and
Team Building
• Dealing with Difficult People
• Some people play negative roles
• Use the “Strategies” handout for tools to
deal with those playing negative roles
Group Dynamics and
Team Building
Effective Meetings
Plan ahead
Help people prepare ahead for meeting
Start, end on time
Use agenda with times, and ground rules
Group Dynamics and
Team Building
• Meetings – continued
• Put most important items early on agenda
• At end, verify assignments, the work to do
before next meeting
• Meeting environment – important for more
effective meetings
Group Dynamics and
Team Building
Understanding yourself and others
All colors bring strengths to a team
Blue, Green, Gold, Orange
Utilize colors to get people to work
Importance of Team Work in
Municipal Governance
Team Work is important in city government:
1. Inherent interdependence; all in it together
2. Image - public perception, democracy works
3. Effectiveness and efficiency = better service
4. High quality workplace = more job
satisfaction and less stress
Key Word Review - 1
• Anecdoter – throws discussion off track
• Communication – process of sending a
message to another person and receiving
feedback from that person
• Dominator – monopolizes discussion
• Group Dynamics- energy produced from
interaction of people together
Key Word Review - 2
• Group Member Roles – individuals play
positive and negative roles in groups,
determined by individual behavior in the
• Groups – individuals associated for some
purpose or goal
• Individual Roles – negative roles
promoting personal, self-interest
Key Word Review - 3
• Judgment – way of coming to conclusions
about what you perceive (take in info)
• Maintenance Roles – help members of
group work together to reach goals
• Perception – ways we become aware of
people, things, and ideas
• Personality Temperament – manner of
thinking, behaving, reacting to a person
Key Word Review - 4
• Task Roles – roles related to working on
a task in a group
• Temperament – manner of thinking,
behaving, reacting to another person
Group Dynamics and
Team Building
Thank you
for your
attention today

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