Chapter 9 An emerging world power

Report
CHAPTER 9
AN EMERGING WORLD
POWER
1890-1917
SECTION 1: THE
ROOTS OF
IMPERIALISM
The Causes of Imperialism
• Imperialism – the policy by which strong nations extend
their political, military, and economic control over weaker
territories
• Why? Economic Benefits…
• Extractive Economies – the imperial
country extracted, or removed, raw
materials from the colony
Cont.…
• This was not the case for the resource
rich United States. Trade was our
concern. We produced more goods than we could
consume.
• Military Strength; the US need bases around the globe to
refuel and maintain our growing fleet of naval vessels.
• Alfred T. Mahan – a military historian and an officer in the
US Navy played a key role in transforming the US into a
Naval Power. By 1900 the US had the third largest navy
Cont….
• Imperialists believed in National Superiority and used the
ideas of racial, national, and cultural superiority to justify
imperialism
• Social Darwinism – the belief
that life consists of competitive
struggles in which only the fittest
survive
Why did the US believe in Social
Darwinism?
• “Manifest Destiny” God had granted them the right and
responsibility to settle the frontier.
• Frederick Jackson Turner – historian wrote The
Significance of the Frontier in American History; (“safety
valve,” against internal conflict)
America’s First Steps Toward World
Power
• The US power grows in the pacific by entering Japan.
• Matthew Perry – Commodore, sailed a fleet to Japan
which to this point had been closed to the world. His
ships “giant dragons puffing smoke” awed the Japanese
emperor
• This opened the expansion
to Midway islands and the
the Hawaiian Islands
“Seward’s Folly”
• The purchase of Alaska from Russia in 1867 for $7.2
million (2 cents an acre) was dubbed “Seward’s Folly,”
because many believed it was a vast tundra of snow and
ice.
• The purchase almost doubled the country’s size, and it
was a land of rich
timber, oil, and many
more natural resources
The United States Acquires Hawaii
• The US had ties with the Hawaiian Islands since the
1790, ships stopped on their way east. Missionaries had
established Christian churches and schools
Cont….
• After the death of King Kalakaua (kah LAH kah oo ah) his
sister Queen Liliuokalani (lih lee oo oh kah LAH nee)
sought to regain power back and abolished the pro–white
constitution
• The US forcefully regained power and annexed Hawaii
into a US territory during the Spanish American War
SECTION 2: THE
SPANISH-AMERICAN
WAR
Causes of the War
• Spain was an imperial nation in decline.
The US had invested $50 million in sugar cane plantations
though the island was very unstable
• Jose’ Marti’ – launched a war for independence from
Spain.
• Many Americans favored the Cubans struggle for
freedom. They distained Spain’s brutality and worried
about US economic interests
Cont….
• Publishers like William Randolph Hearst, heightened the
publics dislike or Spanish government
• Yellow Press – used a comic-strip character called the
The Yellow Kid that sensationalized and exaggerated
Spanish atrocities and compared Cuban rebels to the
patriots of the A.M.R.
Cont….
• Jingoism – aggressive nationalism, and inflamed
relations with Spain
• The Maine blows up in Havana harbor, 266 of the 350
officers and crew died, a naval investigation concluded
the cause was a mine. (later investigation raised doubts
though)
American Troops Battle the Spanish
• Americans responded enthusiastically, 200,000 men
enlisted in the army
• George Dewey – Commodore, steamed his squadron
into Manila Bay surprising the Spanish fleet destroying the
Spanish killing 400 Spanish sailors.
• Emilio Aguinaldo (ahg eeNAHL doh) – Filipino
nationalist who was defeating the Spanish army at the
same time Dewey was defeating the navy
Cont….
• US forces in Cuba were poorly trained and supplied.
They were obsolete weapons and heavy wool uniforms
• Rough Riders – commanded by Theodore Roosevelt
consisted of rugged westerners and upper-class
easterners who relished the “strenuous life”
Cont….
• Roosevelt and the Rough Riders gained fame for their
role in the battle of San Juan hills. They fought along
African American soldiers from the Ninth and Tenth
Cavalries. (Primary Source pg. 260)
Effects of the War
• Treaty of Paris – officially ended the war, Spain gave up
control of Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Pacific island of
Guam and sold the Philippines to the US for $20 million
• Americans Debate Imperialism with the formation of the
“Anti-Imperialist League,” calling imperialism a crime and
disloyal to the distinctive principles of our government
SECTION 3: THE
UNITED STATES AND
EAST ASIA

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