Lindsea Vaudt Laura Ruskamp 12.7.12 • • • • • • • Ball over the net and inside the service box Difficult return or no return High ball velocity Ball spin Score Fluid rhythm Energy storage • Types of Serves: • Flat: minimum spin, low, straight • Most common • Highest velocity • Kick: heavy spin (top spin), more net clearance, direction change on landing • Greatest force and torque • Highest injury potential • Slice: side spin, curves toward or away from receiver • Lowest force and torque Men Women 1. S. Groth (Australia): 163.4 mph (2012) 1. V. Williams (USA): 129 mph (2007) 2. I. Karlovic (Croatia): 156 mph (2011) 2. S. Williams (USA): 128 mph (2010) 3. M. Raonic (Canada): 155.3 mph (2012) 3. J. Georges (Germany): 126.1 mph (2012) 4. A. Roddick (USA): 155 mph (2004) 4. B. Schultz-McCarthy (Netherlands): 126 mph (2007) • Phase 1: • Starting Position • Preparatory Movements • Phase 2: • Coil • Wind-Up • Backswing • Phase 3: • Un-Coil • Force Producing Movements • Acceleration • Phase 4: • Follow-Through • Recovery *movements occur in all planes of motion • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vcjZ5r_YHV0 • Begins at “ready position” and ends with ball release from the non-dominant hand • Knee flexion/extension, hip flexion/extension, shoulder rotation, back flexion/extension • Initiates the storage of potential energy in the upper limb • Low injury risk • Muscles used: • Rotator Cuff muscles, Quadriceps, Hamstrings, Gastrocnemius • From ball release to point of maximal external rotation of dominant shoulder • Body twists away from net, knees and hips flex, back extends and rotates away from net • Helps to store even more potential energy in the shoulder • Leads to a higher swing velocity • Injury Risk: • Higher risk • Shoulder bears 40% of body weight • Impingement, anterior labral injuries, musculotendinous injuries • Muscles used: • Abdominal muscles, rotator cuff muscles, pectoralis major is most active • Power • Flexibility • Range of motion in the shoulder and back • Racquet drop, “scratching the back” • Racquet parallel to the right side of the body • Rotation of the trunk and arm (shoulder over shoulder) • Shifts the angular momentum forward • Whip • hips, torso, shoulder, arm, elbow, forearm, wrist and racquet movements • Shoulders parallel to the net prior to impact • Need to use both upper and lower body • Skills following contact with the ball • Racquet arm follows across the body to the center line • Angular momentum into linear momentum • Body and arm rotation • Rotation of hips and shoulders • Hip and trunk rotation to get the right leg whipped around • End low and prepared for the return • 2-20 injuries per 1000 hours played • “Violent maneuver which requires power and acceleration” • High internal forces and repetitive mechanics are source of injury • Limit serve number, proper physical preparation, proper technique • Tennis Elbow (lateral epicondylitis): • Most common injury • Shoulder injuries also common • Focus: • Back and shoulder strength • Ex: resistance bands, light dumbbell exercises • External rotator strength • Stress experienced because of imbalance compared to internal rotators • Pronation and supination of wrist • Abdominal muscles and core strength • Lower limbs • Flexibility - stretching • Serve one of most important moments in tennis • Small changes have large effect on biomechanics of the serve and injury potential • Initial phases store potential energy • High potential for injury • Proper technique is key • Caused by high internal forces • Abrams, G. D., Sheets, A. L., Andriacchi, T. P., & Safran, M. R. (2011). Review of tennis serve motion analysis and the biomechanics of three serve types with implications for injury. Sports Biomechanics, 10(4), 378-390. • Elliot, B. (2006). Biomechanics and tennis. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 40, 392-396. doi: 10.1136/bjsm.2005.023150 • Eygendaal, D., Rahussen, F. T. G., & Diercks, R. L. (2007). Biomechanics of the elbow joint in tennis players and relation to pathology. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 41, 820-823. doi: 10.1136/bjsm.2007.038307 • Goktepe, A., Ak, E., Sogut, M., Karabork, H., & Korkusuz, F. (2009). Joint angles during successful and unsuccessful tennis serves; kinematics of tennis serve. Joint Diseases and Related Surgery, 20(3), 156-160. • Pro Tennis Internet Network. (2012, September 12). Serve speed leaders. Retrieved from http://www.wtatennis.com/news/20120910/ids-serve-speedleaders_2256076_1978722Abrams, G. D., Sheets, A. L., Andriacchi, T. P., & Safran, M. R. (2011). Review of tennis serve motion analysis and the biomechanics of three serve types with implications for injury. Sports Biomechanics,10(4), 378-390. • Reid, M., Whiteside, D., & Elliot, B. (2011). Serving to different locations: Set up, toss, and racket kinematics of the professional tennis serve. Sports Biomechanics, 10(4), 407-414.