Keeping the Personal in Personalized Learning

Report
Keeping the Personal in
Personalized Learning
Sam Redding
Center on Innovations in Learning
www.centeril.org
September 2013
“Personalization”
individualized, tailored, differentiated, student-directed…
Technology
dramatically increases a teacher’s ability to
identify and manage the needs of many
students…any time, any where
The Role of
the Teacher
…Would there be a Plato without a Socrates?
Personalization ensues from the relationships
among teachers and learners and the teacher’s
orchestration of multiple means for enhancing
every aspect of each student’s learning
and development.
Added to Pace and Place
teacher’s ability to positively influence a
student because of his or her relationship with the
student and the student’s family is a means of
personalization.
 The
student’s personal aspirations and selfefficacy perception affect his or her motivation to
learn and open windows to expanded interests.
A
student’s metacognitive competencies are
critical to self-directed learning and mastery and are
built through multiple modes of instruction and the
teacher’s example.
A
A
student’s social
and emotional
competencies are significant goals for
personalized learning.
Relational Suasion and
Modeling
Motivation to Learn
Metacognitive
Competencies
Self Direction
Social and Emotional
Competencies
Mastery of
Knowledge
and Skills
Individualized,
Differentiated, and
Varied Instruction
A Comprehensive Model
Questions for Reflection
1.
How does the broader definition of personalized
learning fit with your own philosophy of teaching
and learning?
2.
How do you use technology to manage
your curriculum and instruction and
to target learning tasks for
individual students?
3.
What is your personal story
about a first encounter with a
student that proved to not
reflect your later understanding
of him or her?
Relational Suasion
“Teacher effectiveness has the largest
impact of school effects on student learning,
and research indicates that top-quintile
teachers produce learning gains three times
that of bottom-quintile teachers.”
Hassel & Hassel, 2009
Image by Monkeybusinessimages, provided by Dreamstime license
Relational Suasion
The Teacher and the Classroom Culture
Wang, Haertel, and Walberg (1997), in a meta-analysis
of factors influencing learning, reported strong effect
sizes for the teacher’s classroom management and
social interactions with students.
Image by Monkeybusinessimages, provided by Dreamstime license
Relational Suasion
The Teacher and the Students
“When we are asked to name the teachers that had
marked positive effects on us, the modal number is
usually two to three, and the reasons typically start with
comments about caring, or that they ‘believed in me.’”
Hattie, 2012, p. 78
Image by Monkeybusinessimages, provided by Dreamstime license
Relational Suasion
The Teacher and the Students’ Families
Patricia Edwards (2011) asserts that
differentiation in a teacher’s approach to families is
as important as differentiation in instruction.
Image by Monkeybusinessimages, provided by Dreamstime license
Questions for Reflection
1.
2.
3.
How would you describe the culture that
you establish in your classroom?
What students of yours come to mind
when you think of how you have
connected with them in special and
personal ways that inspired them to learn?
How do you get to know the story of
each of your students’ families?
…a person’s willingness to engage in an
activity is a function of how much one
values the activity, coupled with one’s
expectation for success in the activity and
compared with how much one values and
expects success in other activities.
Wigfield & Eccles, 2000
Motivation to Learn
(Expectancy Value Theory)
Personal Aspiration
Linked to Learning Task
Motivation
to Learn
Mindset and Motivation (Attribution)
…the student’s belief that goal attainment is (a) a function
of “smartness,” (b) current level of skill, or (c) ability to
improve skill to achieve the goal.
Questions for Reflection
What is your mindset about the malleability of
intelligence and social competence?
2. What is the prevailing mindset of your colleagues about
the malleability of intelligence and social competence?
3. What is the prevailing mindset of your students about
the malleability of intelligence and social competence?
4. Do you see that some students are motivated by goals
incompatible with their learning in school?
5. How do you help students clarify their aspirations and
connect them to current learning goals?
6. How do you encourage students to value mastery for its
own sake?
7. How do you individualize instruction to build each
student’s self-efficacy perception?
1.
Metacognitive Competencies
Modeling, Questioning, and
Attributions
 Directly Teaching Metacognitive
Skills
 Multiple Modes of Instruction

Metacognitive Competencies
Teachers who model a metacognitive approach
to learning by “thinking out loud” benefit students
(Wirth & Aziz, 2010) by promoting the learner’s
ability to know what he or she knows and to adapt
learning strategies in order to reach desired ends.
Metacognitive Competencies
Learning strategies or styles?
“Learning strategies, yes;
enjoying learning, yes;
learning styles, no”
Hattie, 2009, p. 197
Questions for Reflection
1.
Do you intentionally plan lessons to include
“thinking out loud” to model metacognition?
2.
Do you include metacognitive skills in your
instructional plans?
3.
How do you vary your instructional modes
and assignments to exercise students’
metacognitive skills?
4.
How important are verbal attributions in
forming students’ understanding that mastery
comes from effort and strategy rather than
“smartness”?
Social and Emotional Competencies
A resilient youth…
 builds bonds with adults and
peers based on care and mutual
concern
 thinks for him- or herself and
can solve problems creatively
 can tolerate frustration and
manage emotions
 avoids making other people’s
problems one’s own
 Shows optimism and persistence
in the face of failure
 resists being put down and
sheds negative labels
 has a sense of humor and can
“forgive and forget”
Murphy (1987)
Social and Emotional Competencies
Circle of Courage®
from Native American
culture:
 belonging
 mastery
 independence, and
 generosity
Photo by Jim Witmer
Social and Emotional Competencies
Social, and Emotional Learning:
…teaches the skills we all need to
handle ourselves, our relationships,
and our work, effectively and
ethically. These skills include
recognizing and managing our
emotions, developing caring and
concern for others, establishing
positive relationships, making
responsible decisions, and handling
challenging situations
constructively and ethically. They
are the skills that allow children to
calm themselves when angry, make
friends, resolve conflicts
respectfully, and make ethical and
safe choices.
CASEL, 2013
Social and Emotional Competencies
CASEL’s Five Core Competencies
1. self-awareness
2. self-management
3. social awareness
4. relationship skills
5. responsible decision making
CASEL, 2011
Social and Emotional Competencies
Evidence-based social and emotional learning
programs not only improved social and
emotional competencies but also yielded an 11percentile-point gain in academic achievement.
Durlak et al, 2011
Questions for Reflection
1.
What do you think about intentional fostering
of values such as belonging, independence,
mastery, and generosity?
2.
How are social and emotional competencies
taught and reinforced in your classroom?
3.
What students of yours come to mind when
you think of social and emotional barriers that
inhibit their school learning and personal
development?
4.
How have you intentionally contributed to the
social and emotional learning of particular
students?
Lesson Plan Template
for Personalized Learning
References
Brendtro, L., Brokenleg, M., & Van Bockern, S. (2002). Reclaiming youth at risk. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree.
CASEL (2011). What is social and emotional learning (SEL) [Webpage]. Retrieved from http://casel.org/why-itmatters/what-is-sel/
CASEL (2013). Retrieved from http//: www.casel.org
Durlak, J.A., Weissberg R.P., Dymnickim A.B., Taylor, R.D., Schellinger, K.B. (2011). The impact of enhancing students'
social and emotional learning: A meta-analysis of school-based universal interventions. Child Development, Jan-Feb;
82(1): 405-32.
Dweck, C. (2000). Self theories: Their role in motivation, personality, and development. New York: Psychology Press.
Edwards, P. (2011). Differentiating family supports. In S. Redding, M. Murphy, & P. Sheley (Eds.), Handbook on family and
community engagement (pp. 113-116). Lincoln, IL: Academic Development Institute. Retrieved from
www.schoolcommunitynetwork.org. Also published by Information Age Publishing.
Hassel, B., & Hassel, E. (2009). 3X for all: Extending the reach of education’s best. Chapel Hill, NC: Public Impact.
Hattie, J. (2012). Visible learning for teachers. Maximizing impact on learning. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge.
Hattie, J. (2009). Visible learnning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. Abingdon, Oxon:
Routledge.
U. S. Department of Education. (2010). Transforming American education: Learning powered by technology. Washington, DC:
Author. Retrieved from http://www.ed.gov/technology/netp-2010
Wang, M. C., Haertel, G. D., & Walberg, H. J. (1997). Learning influences. In H. J. Walberg & G. D. Haertel (Eds.),
Psychology and educational practice (pp. 199–211). Berkeley, CA: McCutchan.
Wigfield, A. & Eccles, J. S. (2000). Expectancy-Value Theory of achievement motivation. Contemporary Educational
Psychology, 25, 68-81.
Wirth, K., & Aziz, F. (2010). Reading, reflecting, and relating: A metacognitive approach to learning. International Advances
in Economic Research, 16(2), 237–238.
Wolf, M. (2010). Innovate to education: System [re]design for personalized learning. A report from the 2010 symposium.
Washington, DC: Software & Information Industry Association. Retrieved from
http://siia.net/pli/presentations/PerLearnPaper.pdf
Contact
Sam Redding
Center on Innovations in Learning
www.centeril.org
[email protected]

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