Nuclear Reactions Review powerpt

Nuclear Reactions Review
Please note the letters may be out of
order…I cut and pasted.
Alpha particles
a.are positively charged.
b.consist of two protons and four neutrons.
c.can penetrate any thickness of matter.
d.All of the above
In the equation E = mc2, c stands for
c.the speed of light.
b.the total energy.
d.the size of the particle.
Radon gas is produced smoking cigarettes. nuclear power plants.
c.through radioactive decay of uranium-238 in
Earth’s crust. a result of rotting wood in the basements of
What holds protons and neutrons together in a
nucleus? charges attracting
c.strong nuclear force charges repelling
d.atomic mass
In a stable nucleus, the attractive forces are
_____ the repulsive forces.
a.weaker than
c.canceled out by
b.stronger than
d.equal to
During fission, some of the parent nuclear mass
is converted into
c.critical mass.
b.heavier nuclei.
A nuclear chain reaction occurs when excess
_____ collide with other nuclei.
d.gamma rays
Fusion produces _____ nuclei.
d.All of the above
Which of the following is not a source of natural
background radiation?
a.the sun
b.X-ray machines
Which of the following is an advantage of
nuclear energy as a power source?
a.Nuclear waste is not radioactive.
b.Nuclear plants are low in cost.
c.Nuclear energy does not produce air pollution.
d.Waste can be stored anywhere.
Which of the following is a disadvantage of
nuclear energy as a power source?
a.Nuclear energy produces less energy than the
burning of coal.
b.Nuclear energy produces air pollution.
c.Nuclear waste must be safely stored.
d.The fuel source is very limited.
The nuclear power used for electricity is
produced by
c.a chemical reaction.
d.radon gas.
The process of nuclear change in an atom of
radioactive material is called
a.radioactive decay.
c.nuclear mass.
When a nucleus undergoes nuclear decay by
gamma rays, the atomic number of the new
a.remains the same.
c.increases by one.
b.decreases by one.
d.increases by two.
The attractive force between protons and
neutrons in a nucleus caused by the strong
nuclear force acts only
a.outside the nucleus. unstable isotopes.
b.over a very short distance.
Nuclei with too many or too few neutrons are
a.never found.
Fusion occurs when nuclei
d.gain energy.
Short-lived isotopes that are used in fields such
as agriculture and medicine are called
a.trace elements.
c.radioactive tracers.
b.carbon tracers.
d.alpha-emitting isotopes.
Alpha particles are nuclei of
In radioactive decay, with each successive halflife, half the remaining sample decays to form
The process of the production of lighter nuclei
from heavier nuclei is called
a.mass energy.
The isotopes of hydrogen that are commonly
used in fusion are
a.hydrogen and deuterium
c.tritium and deuterium
b.hydrogen and tritium
d.none of the above
An instrument that is used to determine the
radioactivity in a substance is called a
a.nuclear reactor
c.emission detector
b.Geiger counter
d.radioactivity detector
Radioactive materials have unstable
2.The type of nuclear radiation that can
penetrate farthest through matter is called
C.neutron emission.
B.gamma rays.
3.Nuclei with too many or too few neutrons are
A.never found.
4.The process by which a nucleus splits into two
or more smaller fragments, releasing neutrons
and energy is called...
A.strong nuclear split
C.change reaction
5.Fusion occurs when nuclei
D.gain energy.
6.A fission chain reaction can be slowed by
using materials that will
A.absorb some of the neutrons.
B.convert some of the neutrons to protons.
C.increase the rate of the neutron
D.decrease the amount of available oxygen in
the air.
• 7. You prepare a large screened-in box, inside
which you place several dozen mouse traps. You
set each trap and on each mouse trap you place a
ping pong ball. You then drop another ping pong
ball into the box, which sets off one of the mouse
traps, which sets off other mouse traps, and so
on. You have just demonstrated
• A.a chain reaction.
• C.the theory of relativity.
• B.fusion.
• D.alpha decay.
8. Background radiation can come from
A.the sun.
D.all of the above
• 9. Our body tissues are normally protected
from most background radiation by
• A.special deflectors in the atmosphere.
• B.our outer skin.
• C.staying indoors or in protected areas.
• D.special molecules within our bodies that
fight radiation.
• 10. Short-lived isotopes like magnesium-28
that are used in fields such as geology,
agriculture, and medicine are called
• A.trace elements.
• C.carbon tracers.
• B.radioactive tracers.
• D.alpha-emitting isotopes.
11. Radioactive tracers are short-lived
• 12. To treat certain brain tumors, doctors can
use small beams of ____ that are focused to
kill only the tumor cells.
• A.X-rays
• C.alpha rays
• B.beta rays
• D.gamma rays
• 13. The use of nuclear reactors to generate
electricity is
• A.decreasing rapidly.
• C.found in dozens of countries.
• B.found only in the United States.
• D.totally safe.
• 14. The ideal location for a radioactive-waste
storage facility is one that is
• a sparsely populated area.
• C.far away from ground water
• an area free from earthquakes.
• D.all of the above
• 15. When a fusion reactor for safely
generating energy is developed, the element
that could meet Earth's energy demands for
millions of years is
• A.oxygen.
• C.hydrogen.
• B.nitrogen.
• D.lithium.
• 16. What two elements are involved in nuclear
fusion reactions?
• A.barium and krypton
• C.uranium and hydrogen
• B.uranium and barium
• D.hydrogen and helium
• 17. Nuclear reactors use __________ to turn
large turbines to produce electricity.
• A.water
• C.wind
• energy
• D.steam
• 18. Our sun is powered by nuclear
• A.fission
• C.waste
• B.fusion
• D.reactors
• 19. Which element is the largest source of
radiation in the Earth's crust?
• A.Uranium
• C.Radon
• B.Krypton
• D.Barium
• 20. What is the force that binds protons and
neutrons together in the nucleus of an atom
• A.gravity
• C.strong nuclear force
• B.magnetic force
• D.air force one
• 21. What is the name for the process in which
light nuclei combine at extremely high
temperatures, forming a heavier nucleus and
releasing energy?
• A.alpha contact
• C.fusion
• B.fission
• D.change reaction
• 22. Name one good use of the energy
produced in a controlled chain reaction.
• A.tanning
• C.electricity
• B.x-rays
• D.nuclear waste
• 23. During beta decay, a nucleus
• up two protons and two neutrons.
• B.maintains the same number of protons and
• C.loses a proton and gains a neutron.
• D.gains a proton and loses a neutron.
• 24. In alpha decay, the mass number of the
atom before the decay
• A.equals the sum of the mass numbers of the
• B.does not change after the decay.
• the same as the atomic number.
• D.cannot be determined.
• 25. Which of the following occurs in the
nucleus during alpha decay?
• A.Two neutrons and two electrons are gained.
• B.Two protons and two neutrons are gained.
• C.Two neutrons and two electrons are lost.
• D.Two protons and two neutrons are lost.
• 26. What changes in the nucleus during
nuclear decay by gamma rays?
• content
• C.atomic number
• B.atomic mass
• D.All of the above
• 27. As a radioisotope tries to stabilize it can
transform into a new element. This process
will continue until the new element has a
stable nucleus and is not radioactive. What is
this process called?
• Transmutation
• Electromagnetic decay
• Nuclear radiation
• Nuclear mutation

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