Chap 8 Assessing Behavior

Report
Chapter 8:
Assessing
Behavior
Lindsey Gallagher
Caldwell College
June 6, 2012
• The bedrock principle of behavior analysis is that it is
necessary to “____________________” before any
treatment is contemplated.
(Bailey & Burch, 2011)
• “Behavior analyst do not work on rumor or hearsay. They
want to see problems for themselves.”
• Variability
• Trending
• ABC’s (function)
Baseline
(Bailey & Burch, 2011)
• What does “taking a baseline” mean?
• Referral has been made of a behavior that is problematic
• Behavior is observable & has been operationally defined;
allows quantification. (frequency, duration etc.)
• A trained observer has documented the occurrence of the
behavior and the circumstances surrounding its occurrence.
• Legitimacy of referral
• Problem is measurable
• If treatment is appropriate depending on graphed baseline data.
Baseline
(Bailey & Burch, 2011)
• “This kid is driving me nuts!”
• Assessment of behavior must occur first!
• Duration vs. frequency of out of seat behavior?
• Most appropriate dimension
• SD for behavior
• Antecedents (type of assignments, time of day, presence of
certain students/subjects)
• Prompts for Bx
• Reinforcements currently maintaining behavior
• From this assessment/observation the legitimacy of
referral is established and possible operating variables are
identified.
Referral of Problem Bx
(Bailey & Burch, 2011)
Baseline
(Bailey & Burch, 2011)
• Sheldon observes Raj on drugs
Big Bang Theory
(Bailey & Burch, 2011)
• 3.0 Assessing Behavior
• Behavior analysts who use behavioral assessment
techniques do so for purposes that are appropriate in light of
research. Behavior analysts recommend seeking medical
consultation if there is any reasonable possibility that a
referred behavior is a result of a medication side effect or
some biological cause.
3.0 Assessing Behavior
(Bailey & Burch, 2011)
(a) Behavior analysts' assessments, recommendations,
reports, and evaluative statements are based on
information and techniques sufficient to provide
appropriate substantiation for their findings.
• Understand your assessment tool
• Standardization sample & your client
• Interpret data using test manual and research
3.0A Assessing Behavior
(Bailey & Burch, 2011)
(b) Behavior analysts refrain from misuse of assessment
techniques, interventions, results, and interpretations and
take reasonable steps to prevent others from misusing the
information these techniques provide.
• Don’t go beyond your data!
• Discourage others from doing so as well.
3.0B Assessing Behavior
(Bailey & Burch, 2011)
(Bailey & Burch, 2011)
(Bailey & Burch, 2011)
(c) Behavior analysts recognize limits to the certainty with
which judgments or predictions can be made about
individuals.
• Stay close to the data
• Acknowledge imperfections of assessment
• Conduct behavioral assessments before implementing a
behavior program.
3.0C Assessing Behavior
(Bailey & Burch, 2011)
(d) Behavior analysts do not promote the use of
behavioral assessment techniques by unqualified persons,
i.e., those who are unsupervised by experienced
professionals and have not demonstrated valid and reliable
assessment skills.
• Trained & experienced individuals should carry out
assessments
• BCaBA should be supervised by BCBA
3.0D Assessing Behavior
(Bailey & Burch, 2011)
• 3.01 Behavioral Assessment Approval.
•
The behavior analyst must obtain the client’s or client-surrogate’s approval in writing of the behavior
assessment procedures before implementing them. As used here, client-surrogate refers to someone legally
empowered to make decisions for the person(s) whose behavior the program is intended to change; examples
of client-surrogates include parents of minors, guardians, and legally designated representatives
• 3.02 Functional Assessment.
•
•
(a) The behavior analyst conducts a functional assessment, as defined below, to provide the necessary data to
develop an effective behavior change program.
(b) Functional assessment includes a variety of systematic information-gathering activities regarding factors
influencing the occurrence of a behavior (e.g., antecedents, consequences, setting events, or motivating
operations) including interview, direct observation, and experimental analysis.
• 3.03 Explaining Assessment Results.
•
Unless the nature of the relationship is clearly explained to the person being assessed in advance and
precludes provision of an explanation of results (such as in some organizational consultation, some
screenings, and forensic evaluations), behavior analysts ensure that an explanation of the results is provided
using language that is reasonably understandable to the person assessed or to another legally authorized
person on behalf of the client. Regardless of whether the interpretation is done by the behavior analyst, by
assistants, or others, behavior analysts take reasonable steps to ensure that appropriate explanations of results
are given.
• 3.04 Consent-Client Records.
•
The behavior analyst obtains the written consent of the client or client-surrogate before obtaining or disclosing
client records from or to other sources, including clinical supervisor.
• 3.05 Describing Program Objectives.
•
The behavior analyst describes, in writing, the objectives of the behavior change program to the client or
client-surrogate (see below) before attempting to implement the program. And to the extent possible, a riskbenefit analysis should be conducted on the procedures to be implemented to reach the objective.
(Bailey & Burch, 2011)
• 3.01 Behavioral Assessment
Approval
• Obtain the client’s or client-surrogate’s approval in writing
of the behavior assessment procedures before implementing
them.
• parents of minors
• guardians
• legally designated representatives
Behavioral Assessment
Approval
(Bailey & Burch, 2011)
• 3.02 Functional Assessment.
• (a) Conduct functional assessment to provide the necessary
data to develop an effective behavior change program.
• (b) Functional assessment includes a variety of systematic
information-gathering activities regarding factors
influencing the occurrence of a behavior (e.g., antecedents,
consequences, setting events, or motivating operations)
including interview, direct observation, and experimental
analysis.
Functional Assessment
(Bailey & Burch, 2011)
Functions
http://www.educateautism.com/functional-behaviour-assessment.html
Functional Assessment
http://www.educateautism.com/functional-behaviour-assessment.html
• After conducting a functional assessment the ethical
behavior analyst is obligated to clearly explain the results
and explain limiting conditions of treatment
• There can be many functions a single topography of
behavior; this is why functional assessments are so
important to conduct before developing a behavior
intervention with any child.
(Bailey & Burch, 2011)
“Other complexities might include the occurrence of
conditional reinforcers or complex schedules of
reinforcement which are operating to maintain the
behavior, establishing operations that provide motivation
from time to time, or discriminative stimuli and setting
events, which also set the occasion for behavior. The ethical
behavior analyst must examine all these possibilities and
determine which are most salient in arriving at a treatment
approach.”
Bailey & Burch (2011)
(Bailey & Burch, 2011)
• 3.03 Explaining Assessment Results.
• Unless the nature of the relationship is clearly explained to the
person being assessed in advance and precludes provision of an
explanation of results (such as in some organizational
consultation, some screenings, and forensic evaluations), behavior
analysts ensure that an explanation of the results is provided
using language that is reasonably understandable to the person
assessed or to another legally authorized person on behalf of the
client. Regardless of whether the interpretation is done by the
behavior analyst, by assistants, or others, behavior analysts take
reasonable steps to ensure that appropriate explanations of results
are given.
Explaining Assessment
Results
(Bailey & Burch, 2011)
• 3.04 Consent-Client Records.
• The behavior analyst obtains the written consent of the
client or client-surrogate before obtaining or disclosing
client records from or to other sources, including clinical
supervisor.
Consent-Client Records
(Bailey & Burch, 2011)
(Bailey & Burch, 2011)
• 3.05 Describing Program
Objectives.
• The behavior analyst describes, in writing, the objectives of
the behavior change program to the client or clientsurrogate (see below) before attempting to implement the
program. And to the extent possible, a risk-benefit analysis
should be conducted on the procedures to be implemented
to reach the objective.
Describing Program
Objectives
(Bailey & Burch, 2011)
•
•
•
•
•
Baseline
Functional Assessment
Reinforcer Assessment
Data collection
Results of Intervention
Describing Data
(Bailey & Burch, 2011)
• 4.0 The Behavior Analyst and the Individual Behavior Change Program.
The behavior analyst (a) designs programs that are based on behavior analytic principles,
including assessments of effects of other intervention methods, (b) involves the client or the
client-surrogate in the planning of such programs, (c) obtains the consent of the client, and
(d) respects the right of the client to terminate services at any time.
•
4.01 Describing Conditions for Program Success.
• The behavior analyst describes to the client or client-surrogate the environmental
conditions that are necessary for the program to be effective.
•
4.02 Environmental Conditions that Preclude Implementation.
• If environmental conditions preclude implementation of a behavior analytic program, the
behavior analyst recommends that other professional assistance (i.e., assessment,
consultation or therapeutic intervention by other professionals) be sought.
•
4.03 Environmental Conditions that Hamper Implementation.
• If environmental conditions hamper implementation of the behavior analytic program, the
behavior analyst seeks to eliminate the environmental constraints, or identifies in
writing the obstacles to doing so.
Limiting Conditions
(Bailey & Burch, 2011)
• What are some examples of conditions that may impede
the progress of an intervention?
Limiting Conditions?
(Bailey & Burch, 2011)
(Bailey & Burch, 2011)
Maybe parents and consumers will ask of this explanation
& clarity from other professionals about the basis for their
intervention.
Why is clarity important?
(Bailey & Burch, 2011)
(Bailey & Burch, 2011)
(Bailey & Burch, 2011)
(Bailey & Burch, 2011)
Bailey, J.S., & Burch, M. R. (2010). Twenty-five essential skills
& strategies for the professional behavior analyst. New York:
Routledge Publishing.
Cooper, J., Heron, T., & Heward, W. (2007). Applied Behavior
Analysis. New Jersey: Pearson Education.
http://www.bacb.com/index.php?page=57
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=scEytbVOjik
http://www.educateautism.com/functional-behaviourassessment.html
References
(Bailey & Burch, 2011)

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