Agricultural Revolution- A New Way of Life

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Agricultural RevolutionA New Way of Life
The Fertile
Crescent
Civilization
developed slowly in
different parts of the
world. People began
to settle in areas
with abundant
natural resources,
like rich soil and
fresh water (rivers).
The Agricultural Revolution
marked the beginning of the
Neolithic Era c. 8000 BCE
Agriculture- the
growing of plants
and the raising of
animals to supply
food for humans
I. Domestication
A. Domestication in the Middle East:
1. Plants: wheat & barley
2. Animals: dogs, goats, & sheep
B. Differences between wild and
domesticated plants and animals:
1. Wild plants were more brittle
(thinner stems) and had smaller
seeds than domesticated plants.
2. Domesticated sheep were bred
to have longer woolly hair, for
cloth.
C. Both domesticated plants and
animals became more dependent
on farmers
II. Specialization of Labor
(New Jobs)
A. A larger variety of jobs to
perform in farming
communities than in hunting
and gathering groups.
B. People began to specialize,
which means to perform a
specific job.
1. Specialization led to the
beginning of trade.
III. New Inventions
A. Pottery
1. Pottery is created by firing clay.
2. Making pottery became a
specialized job.
3. Properly storing food was
essential for survival.
B. The Plow
1. Made farming more efficient
because it took fewer farmers to
provide enough food for a village.
IV. A Surplus
A. Improved farming methods enabled
some farmers to grow a surplus of crops.
1. This meant that they produced more
than enough food.
2. This surplus became a form of
wealth: an item that could be traded for
another item.
B. Ownership became important for the
first time.
V. Writing
A. First used to prove ownership.
People used stamps called seals
to mark ownership.
1. Later, writing was used to record
business deals, events, laws and
literature.
2. Development of writing marked the
end of the prehistoric period.
Once people began farming, it
became impossible for them to
return to being only hunters
and gatherers. Why do you
think this was so?
• They became accustomed to farm-life.
• The population was too large to
survive as nomads; they needed a
food surplus.

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