### Chapter 9

```IX. X-ray diffraction
9-1. Production of X-ray
Vacuum, thermionic emission, high voltage,
and a target
Energetic electron hitting a target
Characteristic
X-ray
Auger electrons
mv02 / 2  e V
Target
E  mv12 / 2  mv22 / 2  h 2  hc / 2
v2
v0
v1
E  mv02 / 2  mv12 / 2  h1  hc / 1
V2 > V1
I
V2
V1
Short wavelength limits

E  mv / 2  h max  hc / sw
2
0
3S
2P
2S
Excitation
source
1S
transition
Auger
Characteristics
electron
X-Ray photon
L3
L3
L2
L2
L1
L1
} M{
L3
L2
L1
K
K
K2
K1
K
transition
The figure in Note is wrong!
k
a typical X-ray spectrum
Cu K1 =1.54050 Å
Cu K2 =1.54434 Å
Cu K =1.5418 Å
High angle line
Low angle line
Why we can resolve K1 and K2 double
lines at high angle?
2d hkl sin   
2dhkl cosd  d
d


 2d hkl cos   2
cos  
d
2 sin 
tan 
d
 d 
tan 
  tan  d 

9-2. X-ray diffraction
(i) Laue method:  variable, white
(ii) Diffractometer method:  fixed,
(iii) Powder method:  fixed, characteristic
(iv) Rotating crystal method:  fixed,
9-2-1. Laue method
(1) Laue condition
Von Laue derived the “ Laue conditions “ in
1912 to express the necessary conditions for
diffraction.
  
Assume that a, b , c are three crystal lattice
vectors in a crystal
* *
 '    *
 *
a  (S  S )  a  Ghkl  a  (ha  kb  lc )
 ' 
a  (S  S )  h
 ' 
 ' 
c  (S  S )  l
Similarly, b  ( S  S )  k
Very often , the Laue conditions are
expressed as
 '
 ˆ' ˆ
 ˆ' ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
a  ( S  S )  h b  ( S  S )  k c  ( S  S )  l
'
'
ˆ
S  S /

S  Sˆ / 
Unit vector
The three Laue conditions must be satisfied
simultaneously for diffraction to occur.
The physical meaning of the 3 Laue conditions
are illustrated below.
1st Laue conditions
The path difference
between the waves
equals to
 ˆ' ˆ
AC  BD  a  ( S  S )

a  AB
The criterion for diffraction to occur is
 ˆ' ˆ
 ' 
or a  ( S  S )  h
a  ( S  S )  h
integer
For 1-dimensional crystal
Cones of diffracted beams for different h
Stereographic projection representation for 1-D
crystals
The projection of
diffracted beams for h =
0 is a great circle if the
incident beam direction
is perpendicular, i.e.
 
S a
The projection of diffracted beams for h = 0 is a
small circle if the incident beam direction is not
perpendicular
2nd Laue condition
 ' 
b  (S  S )  k
integer
For a two-dimensional crystal
The 1st and 2nd
conditions are
simultaneously
satisfied only
along lines of
intersection of
cones.
Stereographic projection for 2-D crystals
The lines of
intersection of
cones are labeled
as (h , k)
3rd Laue condition
 ' 
c  ( S  S )  l l: integer
For a single
crystal and a
monochromatic
wavelength, it
is usually no
diffraction to
occur
(2) Laue photograph
Laue photograph is performed at “ single
crystal and variable wavelength ”.
(2-1) Ewald sphere construction
'   *
S  S  Ghkl
' 
k  k *
or
 Ghkl
2
white radiation : wavelength is continuoue;
lwl and swl: the longest and shortest wavelength
Two Ewald spheres
OB form
OA 
OB 
1
lwl
1
swl
*
Ghkl in between two spherical surface meets the
diffraction condition since the wavelength is
http://www.xtal.iqfr.csic.es/Cristalografia/archivo
s_06/laue1.jpg
(2-2) zone axis
The planes belong to a zone
We define several planes belong to a zone
[uvw], their plane normal [hi ki li] are
perpendicular to the zone axis, In other words,
[uvw]  [hi kili ]  0
 uhi  vki  wli  0
In the Laue experiments, all the planes meet
the diffraction criterion. Each plane meets the
3 Laue conditions.
 ˆ' ˆ
a  (S  S )  hi
 '
b  (Sˆ  Sˆ )  ki
 ˆ' ˆ
c  ( S  S )  li
 
 ˆ' ˆ
(ua  vb  wc )  (S  S )  hiu  ki v  li w  0
uhi  vki  wli  0
 
 ˆ' ˆ
(ua  vb  wc )  (S  S )  0
for all the plane belonged to the zone [uvw].
If we define



OA  ua  vb  wc
The path difference
between the waves
equals to
OA (Sˆ '  Sˆ )  0
(A) for the condition  < 45o
For all the planes (hikili) in the same zone [uvw]
hiu  ki v  li w  0
 
 ˆ' ˆ
(ua  vb  wc )  (S  S )  hiu  ki v  li w  0
Therefore, all the diffracted beam directions
Ŝ1', Ŝ2', Ŝ3', …Ŝi' are on the same cone
surface.
(B) for the condition  > 45o
The same as well
9-2-2 Diffractometer method
Instrumentation at MSE, NTHU
Shimatsu XRD 6000
Rigaku TTR
Bruker D2 phaser
9-2-2-1 -2 scan
If a new material is deposited on Si(100) and
put on the substrate holder
in
the
' 
diffractometer set-up, k  k is always parallel
to the Si(100) surface normal.
Any sample

 k2
k1
2
1
'
k2
'
k1
' 
k1  k1
' 
k2  k2
Ewald sphere construction
*
Gh1k1l1
1
'
S
*
Gh1k1l1
21

S
o
Si (100) substrate
*
Rotate the incident beam at until Ghkl meets the
diffraction condition at 2  21
This is equivalent to at least one crystal with
(h1k1l1) plane normal in parallel with the
Si(100) surface normal.
When the incident beam is rotated (rotating
the Ewald sphere or rotating the reciprocal
lattice), Gh*2k2l2 will meet the diffraction
*
condition
at 2  2 2
Gh k l

2 2 2
Gh*1k1l1
1
Gh*2k2l2
2
'
S
22

S
o
Si (100) substrate
This is equivalent to at least one crystal with
(h2k2l2) plane normal in parallel with the
Si(100) surface normal.
If only one plane of the film is observed in the
diffractometer measurement, the film is
epitaxial or textured on Si(100).
(b) XRD spectrum of AlN deposited on Si(100)
30000
AlN(002)
Intensity(arb.unit)
25000
RFpower=180w
I=1.2(A)
AC pluse=350(v)
20000
15000
10000
5000
AlN(100)
AlN(101)
0
20
30
40
50
60
2 £c(degree)
A large number of grains with AlN(002)
surface normal in parallel to Si(100) surface
normal, but small amount of grains of
AlN(100) and AlN(101) are also in parallel
to Si(100) surface normal.
9-2-2-2 X-ray rocking curve
X-ray rocking is usually used to characterize
the crystal quality of an epitaxial or textured
film.
At a certain diffraction condition
' 
*
k  k  2Gh1k1l1
the incident and outgoing directions of X-ray
are fixed and the sample is rotated by  scan.
Careful scan around a specific diffraction
peak!
When the crystal is rotated by d, this is equivalent
to the detector being moved by the same d. (?)
The FWHM of the diffracted peak truly reflects the
width of each reciprocal lattice point, i.e. the
shape effect of a crystal. (by high resolution!)
'
S
*
Gh1k1l1
2

S
o
*
Ghkl
2(+)
o
9-2-2-3.  Scan
The  scan is used to characterize the quality
of the epitaxial film around its plane normal
by rotating  (0-2)

Example: the crystal quality of highly oriented
grains each of which is a columnar structure
shown below
Each lattice point in the reciprocal lattice will
be expanded into an orthorhombic volume
according to the shape effect. The scan can be
used to confirm the orientation of the columnar
structure relative to the substrate.
Shape effect
grain
'
S

S
*
Ghkl
2
(
Reciprocal
lattice points
)
'
S

S
*
Ghkl
2
'
S
*
Ghkl
2

S
0

360
9-2-4 Powder method (Debye-Scherrer Camera)
http://www.stanford.edu/group/glam/xlab/MatSci162_172
/LectureNotes/06_Geometry,%20Detectors.pdf
(a) Ewald sphere construction
Reciprocal
lattice of a
polycrystalline
sample
B.D. Cullity
Powder can be treated as a very larger number
of polycrystals with grain orientation in a
random distribution
Reciprocal lattice become
a
series
of
concentric
*
spherical shells with Ghkl as their radius
Intersection of Ewald
sphere with spherical
reciprocal lattice!
'
S forms a cone resulting from the intersection
between Ewald sphere and the spherical
reciprocal lattice.
The intersection between
the concentric
*
spherical shells of Ghkl in radius and the Ewald
sphere of radius k / 2  1 /  are a series of
circles (recorded as lines in films)
Example
Debye-Scherrer powder pattern of Cu made
1
line
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
2
3
4
hkl h2+k2+l2 sin2
111
3
0.1365
200
4
0.1820
220
8
0.364
311
11
0.500
222
12
0.546
400
16
0.728
331
19
0.865
420
20
0.910
5
sin
0.369
0.427
0.603
0.707
0.739
0.853
0.930
0.954
6
7
 (o) sin/(Å-1)
21.7
0.24
25.3
0.27
37.1
0.39
45.0
0.46
47.6
0.48
58.5
0.55
68.4
0.60
72.6
0.62
8
fCu
22.1
20.9
16.8
14.8
14.2
12.5
11.5
11.1
111
200
220
311
222
400
331
420
1
9
10
line
|F|2
P
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
7810
6990
4520
3500
3230
2500
2120
1970
8
6
12
24
8
6
24
24
11
12
13
14
1  cos2 2 Relative integrated intensity
sin 2  cos Calc.(x105) Calc.
Obs.
12.03
7.52
10.0
Vs
8.50
3.56
4.7
S
3.70
2.01
2.7
s
2.83
2.38
3.2
s
2.74
0.71
0.9
m
3.18
0.48
0.6
w
4.81
2.45
3.3
s
6.15
2.91
3.9
s
(a) Structure factor (Cu: Fm-3m, a = 3.615 Å)
F  NSG
s
SG   f j e

 2iGr j
j
Four atoms at [000], [½ ½ 0], [½ 0 ½],
[0 ½ ½]
s
S   f je

G
 2i ( hu j  kv j  lw j )
j
 fe 2i ( h 0 k 0l 0 )  fe
 fe
1
1
 2i ( h  k 0 l )
2
2
 f (1  e
i ( h  k )
e
1 1
 2i ( h  k  l 0 )
2 2
 fe
1 1
 2i ( h 0 k  l )
2 2
i ( h  l )
e
i ( k  l )
)
SG  4 f
SG  0
If h, k, l are unmixed
If h, k, l are mixed
| F |2  N 2  16 f 2
(b)
1
h k l

2
d hkl
a2
2
2d hkl sin   
sin  

2d hkl
sin  
2
2
4a
2

 h k l
2
2
2
2
2
a
(h  k  l )
2
2
2
Small  is associated with small h2+k2+l2.
2
Example: 111
1
h k l

2
d hkl
a2
2
2
2
a
 d111 
3
3.615
2d111 sin 111  1.542  2
sin 111  1.542
3
sin 111  0.3694  111  21.68o
sin 111  0.136
2
sin 111

0.3694

 0.24
1.542
sin 

f Cu
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
29 27.19 23.63 19.90 16.48
0.3  0.24
0.3  0.2
111

 f Cu  22.1
111
19.90  f Cu
19.90  23.63
111 2
 F111  ( 4 f Cu
)  7814
2
{111}
p=8
(23 = 8)
1  cos 2111
 12.05
2
sin 111 cos 111
2
I  753370
(c) Multiplicity P is the one counted in the
point group stereogram.
In Cubic (h  k  l)
{hkl}
P = 48 (3x2x23)
{hhl}
P = 24 (3x23)
{0kl}
P = 24 (3x2x22)
{0kk}
P = 12 (3x22)
{hhh}
P = 8 (23)
{00l}
P = 6 (3x2)
(d) Lorentz-polarization factor
1  cos2 2
2
sin  cos 
(i) polarization factor
The scattered beam depends on the angle of
scattering. Thomson equation
 0   e  2
K 2
I  I0 
  2 2  sin   I 0  2  sin 
 4   m r 
r 
P
I0: intensity of the incident beam
r
7 mKg
0  4  10
K:
constant

2
e
C
: angle between the scattering direction and
the direction of acceleration of the electron
2
4
incident beam travel in xˆ direction
Random polarized beam  E y yˆ E z zˆ

E  E y yˆ  E z zˆ
2
E
I0
2
2
E y  Ez 
 I0 y  I0z 
2
2
The intensity at point P
y component
 = yOP = /2
I Py  I 0 y
K
2
r
z component
I Pz
 = zOP = /2 -2
K
2
 I 0 z 2 cos 2
r
K
K
I P  I Py  I Pz  I 0 y 2  I 0 z 2 cos2 2
r
r
K  1  cos2 2 

I P  I 0 2 
r 
2

Polarization factor
1
1
 cos  
sin 2
sin 2
(ii) Lorentz factor
1
(ii-1)
factor due to grain
sin 2
orientation or crystal rotation
The factor is counted in powder method
and in rotating crystal method.
First, the integrated
intensity   Id (2 )
 Id (2 )  I
max
B
(a)
I max
1

sin 
Crystals with reflection planes make an angle
B with the incident beam  Bragg condition
met  intensity diffracted in the direction 2B.
But, some other crystals are still diffracted in
this direction when the angle of incident
differs slightly from B!
2

2
2
B
1
Intensity
Imax
1   B  
 2   B  
path difference for 11-22
= AD – CB = acos2 - acos1
= a[cos(B-) - cos (B+)]
= 2asin()sinB ~ 2a sinB.
1
Imax/2
B
Integrated
Intensity
2B
Diffraction Angle 2
1
2
2
D
C
2
a
A
1
B
2Na sinB =   completely
cancellation (1- N/2, 2- (N/2+1) …)
 

2 Na sin  B
Maximum angular range of the peak
N
Na
1
(b) B 
cos 
the width B increases as the thickness of
the crystal decreases , as shown in the
figure in the next page
Constructive Interference
t = mdhkl
 + 
0
1
2

…
   + 
   +  .

…
  2d hkl sin  B
2  2(2  d hkl ) sin  B
3  2(3  d hkl ) sin  B


 + 

m
    2dhkl sin(B   ); 2(   )  2(2  dhkl ) sin(B   );
3(   )  2(3  dhkl ) sin(B   ); …
Destructive interference:
extra path difference (plane 0 and plane m/2): /2
(m / 2)(   )  2(m  dhkl / 2) sin(B   ); (m / 2)   / 2
sin(B   )  sin B cos  sin  cosB
 << 1s  cos ~ 1 and sin ~ .
(m / 2)   / 2  2(m  dhkl / 2)(sinB   cosB );
(m / 2)  2(m  dhkl / 2) sin B   / 2  mdhkl  cosB
=t
B  2 

t cos  B
Thickness dependent (just like slits)
1
1
1
 I max  B 

sin  cos  sin 2
(iii-1) cos  :factor due to the number of
crystal counted in the powder method
The number of crystal is not constant for a
particular B even through the crystal are
oriented completely at random.
For the hkl reflection, the range of angle near
the Bragg angle, over which reflection is
appreciable, is . Assuming that N is the
number of crystals located in the circular
band of width r.

r



2

r
sin(


)
B
N   cos 
N
N

4r 2
2

N

# of grains satisfying the diffraction
condition  cosB.
 more grains satisfying the diffraction
condition at higher B.
B
2
(iii-2) factor due to the segment factor in the
Debye-Scherrer film
The film receives a greater proportion of a
diffraction cone when the reflection is in the
forward or backward direction than it does
near 2   / 2
The relative intensity per unit length is
proportional to
1
2R sin 2 B
i.e. proportional to
1
sin 2 B
Therefore, the Lorentz factor for the powder
method is
1
1
1
cos 

sin 2
sin 2 4 sin 2  cos 
and for the rotating crystal method and the
diffractometer method is 1
sin 2
(iv) Plot of polarization and Lorentz factors
Lorentz-Polarization Factor
100
1  cos 2
sin 2  cos 
2
80
60
40
20
0
0
20
40
60
80 100 120 140 160 180 200
2 (Degrees)
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