Chitja Social dimensions in food security measurement

Report
SOCIAL DIMENSIONS IN FOOD SECURITY
MEASUREMENT -WHAT AND HOW TO MEASURE
DST & HSRC SEMINAR 12 NOV 2013
Dr Joyce Chitja
University of
Kwazulu-Natal
Disclaimers
This presentation is conceptual, theoretical
based observed conceptual factors (an on
going livelihood asset building study in ongoing).
 It has a bias on the rural subsistence and
small holder farming context of South Africa.
 It draws from the agricultural, the social and
economic contexts of rural South Africa.
 Focuses on HHFS and those functioning in
the “second economy”
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INTRODUCTION
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The presentation is an attempt to illuminate the social
dimensions in measurement of FS for the definition to
come to be realised.
It is an attempt to explore how can HHFS measures be
combined or used in a complementary way to reflect a
multidimensional picture of the PEOPLE affected.
In South Africa rural families and their communities face
livelihood shocks caused by biophysical, economic, and
socio-political forces leading to lower returns on their
assets or tip them into persistent poverty.
The reasons are a mix of deep historical & present
factors plus the inability of the current economy to
deliver enough jobs in these areas.
The complexity of FS measuring
A single measure that is reliable, valid overtime,
captures all relevant elements and contexts would be
much desirable.
 As known no, single measure meets these criteria
(Coates and Maxwell 2012).
 Most measures do not adequately
capture
vulnerabilities (their causes & contexts)
and
consumptions trends over time.
 This
presentation will attempt to marry FS
measurement, Livelihood Assets and elements of Social
Protection.
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She carries a heavy load! Can “better” FS
conceptualisation &measurement improve
her Livelihood?
Food Security: Definition
Food security definition:
Food security exists when all people, at all
times, have physical and economic access
to sufficient safe and nutritious food that
meets their dietary needs and food
preferences for an active and healthy life.
- 1996 World Food Summit
Implication: Livelihoods Assets should be
resilient to deliver livelihoods that ensure
Food Security
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Why do we measure FS?
Assess current and future FS
 Intervene
 To understand HH resilience over time
 What is the root cause of apparent poor
rural HH resilience in SA? ( suspect
livelihood assets play a role)
 Does the historical context of RSA affect
the poor’s livelihoods assets (Personal,
Human, Social Assets), if so how?
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Suggested links FS and SLA
Suggestion : Livelihood Assets may be one
of the key conditions for the FS definition
to be somewhat achieved for the poor
 Problemitisation: perhaps current
measures do not adequately measure the
level & quality of Human, Personal, Social
Assets?
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Conceptual & Theoretical
Framework
Sustainable Livelihood Asset & Livelihood
Asset Building Approach.
 Social Assets are often very low in poor
communities.
 Social, Human& Individual Assets are often
overlooked in conceptualisation of food
security interventions and in some food
security measurement.
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Livelihood Assets
Social assets - the network of family and community support;
(How did RSA history affect this aspect ? Land removals and
impact of family disintegration?
 Personal assets - their self-confidence, determination and
assertiveness (How did RSA history affect this aspect?)
 Human assets - their skills and knowledge and ability to learn
and work; (Historical vs current skills acquiring system)
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Physical assets - their ability to meet the basic needs of food,
shelter, transportation and access to other required services;
 Financial assets - financial knowledge and capability, access to
credit, savings and investments.
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HHFS measures & Linkage
Livelihood Assets
Household Food Insecurity and Access
Scale (HFIAS); (behavioural & occurrence
measure does not measure causes)
 Coping Strategies Index (CSI)
(behavioural and does not measure
causes)
 Reduced Coping Strategies Index (rCSI);
(behavioural and does not measure
causes)
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Nature
Environment
Social capital
Community Mobilisation, Network
Self Determination
Self confidence
Education (skills)
Politics
Health
Physical infrastructure
Institutions
Markets
Livelihoods
Agriculture
Storage
Conflict
Shocks to households
•Food
•Income
•Health
•Entitlement
•Asset
•Access
Household
resources
Food secure
Symptoms of food insecurity
Household
responses to
shocks
Constrained to Transform
Alternative Approach: asset
building approach with a special
focus on the Personal, Human, &
Social Protection before the
physical & financial assets to foster
“self help” ethos
Mr Khanyile’s FS status: access and
availability constrained by poor tech
skills, lack of exposure to formal
farming & markets
A proposed Framework for
considering SLA in FS measurement
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Word doc
The Framework Raises Key Q’s:
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Have we contextualised FS appropriately to
measure the causes?
If the current FS definition is to be realised: a
recommendation is the following should
encompassed in the conceptualisation and
measurement:
Human Assets (self determination, self belief)
Social Assets (agency, networks, mobilisation)
Individual Assets need to be measured in order to
intervene in a targeted manner
Parting comments
Considering Social SLA’s in FS measuring
could improve long term resilience.
 Considering Social SLA’s in FS measuring
fits into the developmental mandate of
RSA.
 Focus on PEOPLE could build agency and
reduce the welfare burden on the state
long term.
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Ke a leboga, Thank you!

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