项目计划

Report
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小组课堂报告:公司搬迁计划
有关项目计划的进一步讨论
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行动计划表
网络图
甘特图
资源图?
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活动与活动之间的多重关系
网络图的不同表达方式
总时差与自由富余时间
条件图法
里程碑计划
尽快原则、最迟原则和固定日期
不同层次的项目计划
项目计划的黄金法则
项目管理软件
Simple dependencies
 Start and Finish constraints only
 Forward/backword calculation
 Slack calculations
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S
F
SS-Start to Start(开始-开始)
A
SF-Start to Finish(开始-完成)
FS-Finish to Start(完成-开始)
B
S
FF-Finish to Finish(完成-完成)
F
FS-Finish to Start
3
FS 3
A
5
C
5
B
0
5
10
FS 3
A
B
C
15
SS Start to Start
SS 3
A
B
Example: A-Digging Ditch
B-Laying Pipe
0
10
3
20
30
Time
A
B
SS 3
10 days
10 days
FF Finish to Finish
FF 4
B
C
Example: B- Laying Pipe
C-Filling Ditch
0
10
10 days
10 days
20
30
FF 4
Time
B
C
箭线图法(ADM)、双代号网络图法(AOA)
开始
B
C
A
D
E
F
结束
前导图法(PDM)、单代号网络图法(AON)
A
B
C
开始
结束
D
E
F
用节点表示活动
A
EARLY
START
B
D
C
E
DURATION
ACTIVITY
ID
LATE
START
FREE
FLOAT
F
EARLY
FINISH
TOTAL
FLOAT
LATE
FINISH
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Total Float(Slack)=LST-EST,即某项活动最晚
开始时间与最早开始时间的差
活动总时差:是指在不影响整个项目完工时间的
条件下,某项活动可以延迟的时间长度
如果一个路径上的活动的松弛被使用,则链条上
后续的所有活动的最早开始时间会被推迟,从而
减少它们的松弛
总时差的使用必须与链条上后续的活动中的参与
人员进行协调
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Free Float(I,j)=EST(j,k)-EFT(I,j)
(j,k)为(I,j)的紧后作业
自由富余时间:是指在不影响下一个活动的最早
开始时间的前提下,该活动完工期可能有的机动
时间
通常是在具有汇合活动的时候才能有自由富余时
间
如果一项活动具有自由富余时间,则该活动的开
始和结束时间的变动不需要与项目中的其他参与
者进行协调
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Conditional diagramming methods
典型技术是GERT(图形评审技术)
允许有非序列活动,如回路
T h e M ile s to n e P la n
D a te
S tr a te g y
P r o d u c tio n
T h e P r o je c t
F in a n c e
L a u n c h in g P R O D U C T
S 0
1 .1
S 0 = P r o je c t s ta r t-u p
S 1
0 1 .fe b
S 1 = S tr a te g y is d e c id e d
F 1
0 1 .m a r
F 1 = F u n d s a r e g r a n te d
P 1
0 1 .a p r
P 1 = M a c h in e s a r e b o u g h t
P 2
0 1 .m a i
P 2 = M a c h in e s a r e in s ta lle d
S 3
0 1 .ju n
S 3 = S ta k e h o ld e r s a r e in fo r m e d
P 3
0 1 .ju l
P 3 = W o r k e r s a r e id e n tifie d
F 2
0 1 .a u g
F 2 = T o ta l b u d g e t a p p r o v e d
S 3
0 1 .s e p
S 3 = O r g a n iz a tio n a p p r o v e d
P 4
0 9 .s e p
P 4 = F u ll p r o d u c tio n s ta r te d
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从关键路径之外的活动中可获得一些松驰时间(Slack)
在这些活动完成过程中存在一个窗口时间(windows
of times),这个窗口的极限是:
◦ 尽快原则(As Soon As Possible-ASAP)
◦ 最迟原则(As Late As Possible-ALAP)
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大量的项目计划以ASAP为前提假设,但当ALAP与项
目内容更相关的时候可以使用
固定日期(Fixed Dates)是另一种选择
”Once you`ve created your masterplan, on the back
of an envelope or a print-out from your computor,
carry it around with you all the time.
Take it home with you overnight and sleep with it by
the bed (providing you have time to sleep)
That way, if anything occurs to you, you can add it at
once. If you need to check anything, it`s right
there. If you panic you haven`t done something,
you can look to see if it is ticked off.
So long as you and the masterplan are inseparable,
you`re fully in control.”
”Whether or not you are a natural list-maker,
you`ll find you get a huge pshychological
boost from getting things down on paper. It
clears your mind hugely, because once a
thing is written down, you no longer have
to remember it. The project will instantly
look and feel more manageable”
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Only plan for 4-6 months ahead
Make good time judgements, including
minimum and maximum
Limit activities to 1-2 weeks workloads
Calculate with 3.5 days per week
Assume important decisions take 2-3 weeks
Mark out all important milestones
In a large project,the number of critical
activities is usually 10% of total activities
软件为我们做什么?
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活动列表?
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网络图?
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甘特图与资源分配图 ?
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项目的实施?
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《项目管理教程》第6章练习 第20题
(双语教学版 P194)
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下周上机, 史带楼809室

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