oh-chapter 9 notesx - Collinsville Public Schools

Chapter 9 Notes
Civil War &
“The Glory Years”
Was the 15 years or so between the
Indian Removals and the Civil War
All the 5 Civilized Tribes EXCEPT the
Seminoles adopted constitutions. ( They
never committed theirs to writing)
Slavery in the Seminole Nation was
noticeably different, as slaves were able
to come and go as they pleased, earn
money, and live virtually as freedmen
A generous Seminole slave “Gopher
John” even loaned Lieutenant Canby
$1,500 to buy supplies for hungry
However, slave rebellion was still a
common fear among slaveholders
Civil War Alliances
Most tribal agents were loyal to the
Confederate states…because they believed
the U.S. Gov’t had abandoned the people of
Indian Territory (The Union was seen to be
sided with the Gov’t)
They only state bordering Oklahoma, that
remained loyal to the Union, was Kansas.
Confederates were interested in Ind.
Territory as a source of supplies (Grain,
meat, and salt mines)
Cherokees Divide over
Chief John Ross was a leader that
favored neutrality for Indian
Territory…sent letters to all tribes
advising to stay neutral
Stand Watie, an old enemy from
removal days, formed the “Stand
Watie’s Cherokee Mounted
Rifles”…which he recruited
members for the Confederacy
John Ross became the last chief of
the 5 Tribes to sign an alliance w/
the South
Alliances con’t…
Choctaws were almost in total agreement
w/south. . . Signed a treaty w/ Confederate
agent Albert Pike on July 12, 1861 (along
Creeks signed on July 10, 1861
Seminoles signed Aug 1, 1861
Finally Western Indians signed the Alliance
treaty on Aug 12, 1861
Cherokees “voted” to ally and Ross signed the
treaty on Oct 7, 1861!!
**Creeks met internally, and drafted letter to
the Union…declared their neutrality and asked
for Union protection that was promised in all
their treaties**
Battle of Round Mountain
Nov 19, 1861
1st battle that took place on Indian
Between the Creeks (led by
Opothleyahola) and the Confederates
Creeks found a new hiding place in
“Tulsey Town” aka Tulsa
Battle of Honey Springs
July 17, 1863
Most important battle in Ind. Territory
(present day Muskogee)
Like Gettysburg, this was the turning point
of the war in the East…and the turning
point of the war in Ind. Territory
Fort Gibson was recaptured by the Union
End of War in Indian
July 12, 1862, the Union army surrounded
Tahlequah capturing John Ross. . . Who was
sent to settle in Philadelphia
Stand Watie was awarded rank of Brigadier
General in the Confederate Army (only
Indian to attain such a rank)
Official end of the Civil War was April 9,
1865….Watie was the last to surrender
anywhere, and gave up finally on June 23,
The Choctaws were the only tribe to stay true to
the South
They admitted to signing treaties siding with the
South. . .claiming that as a “separate nation” they
had the right to take any steps for their survival
Indian Territory map was completely
Reconstruction Treaties were signed in
Washington in Jan 1866 with leaders of the 5
Civilized Tribes
Severity of the treaties varied on the bargaining power
held by the individual tribes
Cherokees, Creeks, and Seminoles were forced to
make citizens of their own slaves
Choctaws and Chickasaws were given the option of
adopting blacks or having them removed
The Treaties did allow for the Ind. Territories to reestablish themselves under their own gov’t
Congress then awarded franchises to railroads, along
with public grants of land ( Ind. Territory was not
protected, like they thought they were promised)

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