Revising your ICE Essay Tips to avoid Fragments & RunOn Sentences What is a Fragment? • First, let’s define a sentence. • What are the three things that make up a complete sentence? ▫ Subject ▫ Verb ▫ Complete thought • A fragment is a phrase that lacks one of these elements; it cannot be a complete sentence. Evaluate the following to determine if each one is a complete sentence or a frament: Phrase What’s Missing • • • • • • • • • • I ran. Running to the store. If I run fast. Running is fun. Although I ran fast. NOTHING! Missing a subject or a verb Missing a complete thought NOTHING! Missing a complete thought Certain conjunctions can cause a sentence to lack a complete thought. These are called subordinating conjunctions. • Think back to the previous examples: ▫ If I run fast. Although I ran fast. • Which words are conjunctions? IF ALTHOUGH Can you name some other subordinating conjunctions? Punctuating Sentences with Subordinating Conjunctions • How do you punctuate the following sentences? ▫ You take the risk of failing if you always skip class. ▫ If you miss class you should always contact your instructor. ▫ We should lower the legal drinking age because eighteen year olds are already considered adults. ▫ Because it could increase car accidents we should not lower the drinking age. Punctuating Sentences with Subordinating Conjunctions • Never use a comma when a subordinating conjunction falls between two independent clauses (or complete thoughts). • When a subordinating conjunction comes at the beginning of a sentence, always use a comma between the two complete thoughts. Run-On • What’s the definition for a run on? • Is this a run-on? ▫ Before the sun came up this morning, I was sleeping soundly in my bed dreaming about winning the Mega Millions lottery that the news channels have been promoting for days, but I was disappointed to find it was only a dream when my cat jumped on my head and woke me up. • What about this? ▫ I ran far I got tired. Run-On • Myth: A run-on is a sentence that is too long. • Fact: A run can be long or short; it is simply two sentences joined together with out the proper punctuation or conjunction. There are five ways to fix a run-on. Look at the following sentences, and see if you can fix the mistakes in different ways. Then we’ll review the different ways to correct a run-on sentence. (Some of these sentences may already be correct so read carefully!) • I like ice cream chocolate is my favorite. • Sometimes I like vanilla ice cream sometimes I like chocolate. • She missed school yesterday she missed the bus. • John sprained his ankle when he ran to catch the bus. • The bus driver stopped the bus he helped John get on. • If I don’t get up early enough, I won’t be able to catch the bus I will be late to school. • You can add a period between two complete sentences to fix a run-on. ▫ I like ice cream. Chocolate is my favorite. • You can add a common and a coordinating conjunction (remember the FANBOYS). ▫ I like ice cream, and chocolate is my favorite. • You can add a semi-colon between two complete sentences. ▫ I like ice cream; chocolate is my favorite. • You can put a subordinating conjunction at the beginning and put a comma between the two complete sentences. ▫ Because I love ice cream, I ate an entire gallon. • You can add a subordinating conjunction between the two complete sentences. ▫ I ate an entire gallon of ice cream because I love it so much! Question • Can you separate two complete sentences with a comma? ▫ For example: I like chocolate ice cream, I also like vanilla. • Separating two complete sentences with a comma is a type of run-on called a comma splice!! • Instead use one of the other five techniques to separate the two complete sentences. Try different techniques with the same sentences we corrected earlier: • I like ice cream chocolate is my favorite. • Sometimes I like vanilla ice cream sometimes I like chocolate. • She missed school yesterday she missed the bus. • John sprained his ankle when he ran to catch the bus. • The bus driver stopped the bus he helped John get on. • If I don’t get up early enough, I won’t be able to catch the bus I will be late to school. Practice: Correct the mistakes in this paragraphs. Look carefully for fragments and run-on sentences. • Running late to class today. I did not hear. When my alarm went off. I finally jumped out of bed, I knew I would have to rush to get to class on time. I pulled on my pants I grabbed my bag I rushed out the door. But it was too late. The bus was pulling away from the curb, I ran to catch it, I was not fast enough. I sat down in the middle of the road, a car honked behind me. It was my neighbor. On her way to work. She waved me into the car, I was able to make it to class on time! Final Practice • Everyone write three sentences. One must have at least 30 words. One can have no more than four words. Be careful to avoid fragments and run-ons! Double-check your subject-verb agreement.