Report

Digital Systems Number Systems and Codes Wen-Hung Liao, Ph.D. Objectives Convert a number from one number system (decimal, binary, octal, hexadecimal) to its equivalent in one of the other number systems. Cite the advantages of the octal and hexadecimal number systems. Count in octal and hexadecimal. Represent decimal numbers using the BCD code; cite the pros and cons of using BCD. Understand the difference between BCD and straight binary. Understand the purpose of alphanumeric codes such as the ASCII code. Explain the parity method for error detection. Determine the parity bit to be attached to a digital data string Binary-to-Decimal Conversions Example 1: 110112 Example 2: 101101012 Decimal-to-Binary Conversions Method one: reverse the process of binary-todecimal conversion. Method two: repeated division Example: 3710=1001012 Octal Number System The octal number system has a base of eight. Eight possible digits: 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7 Octal point Octal-to-decimal conversion: 3728 Decimal-to-octal conversion: 26610 Octal-to-binary conversion Binary-to-octal conversion Octal system can be used as a “shorthand” for expressing large binary numbers. Hexadecimal Number System The hexadecimal number system has a base of 16. Sixteen possible digits: 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,A,B,C,D,E,F Hex-to-decimal conversion Decimal-to-hex conversion Hex-to-binary conversion Binary-to-hex conversion BCD Code Binary-Coded-Decimal versus straight binary coding. 0 0000, 1 0001, 20010, 30011, 40100, 50101, 60110, 70111, 8 1000, 9 1001 874 (decimal) 1000 0111 0100 (BCD) Alphanumeric Codes ASCII code: American Standard Code for Information Interchange The ASCII code is a 7 bit code, so it has 2^7=128 possible code groups. Refer to Table 2-4. Parity Method for Error Detection Whenever information is transmitted from one device to another device, errors can occur due to noise. Parity method can be used to detect error. A parity bit is an extra bit that is attached to a code group that is being transferred. In even-parity method, the value of the parity bit is chosen so that the total # of 1s in the code group (including the parity bit) is an even number. In odd-parity method, the value of the parity bit is chosen so that the total # of 1s in the code group (including the parity bit) is an odd number. Example ASCII ‘C’: 1000011 Even-parity method: 1 1000011 Odd-parity method: 0 1000011 The parity bit is issued to detect any single-bit errors that occur during the transmission