Amazon Rain Forest How big do you think the Rain Forest is? 1.2 Billion acres ◦ 1,875,000 Sq miles Where is it? 60% in Brazil ◦ Col., Peru, Ven, Ecu, Bol, Guya., Sur, and Fr. Guiana Basin formed 50 million years ago Brazilian Highlands and Guiana Highlands wore down ◦ Left the Amazon River as a drain Worlds Largest River Guiana Highlands BASIN Andes Mountains Brazilian Highlands Where does the name come from? ◦ Francisco de Orellana (Spanish conquistador, first European) ran into a tribe of fierce women warriors "doing as much fighting as ten Indian men." ◦ Orellana recalled the Greek myth of warrior women and named the entire river "Amazonas.” Canopy- dense mass of leaves at the tops of rain forest trees that provides habitat and shade ◦ Most animal life lives in the canopy ◦ Tree frogs, salamanders, monkeys, swarms of insects, and about 1,400 species of birds More types of butterflies than anywhere in the world Worlds largest rodent: capybara There is a lucrative illegal wildlife trade Smugglers look for monkeys, parrots, lizards, and exotic bugs ◦ parrot = $10,000 monkey = $50,000 Effects of Cutting down the RF Bad for the whole planet = 1/3 of the world’s oxygen comes from rainforests ◦ Photosynthesis- process of plants creating food from CO2, H2O, and Sunlight Holds 1/5 for worlds fresh water ANDES Mountains World’s largest continental mountain range Western Coast of S.A Over 4,500 miles long ◦ 120-430 miles wide Average Height of 13,000 ft ◦ Highest Peak: Aconcagua Seven Countries: Arg, Bol, Chi, Col, Ecu, Per, Ven Along the Ring of Fire – Zone of Volcanic activity Contains Many active volcanoes Climate varies ◦ Why? South = rainy and cool Central = Dry North= rainy and warm ◦ Average temp in Col = 64 deg F Tobacco and Potatoes originated in Andes Polylepis – High altitude forests and woodlands found in Andes ◦ Trees only found around 15,000 ft above sea level Incas practiced irrigation 6,000 years ago ◦ Terracing is quite common Potatoes and Maize important = staple food source Tobacco, coffee, and cotton leading export crops Coca important for legal local use in “mildly stimulating” herbal teas.