Applied Research Methods for Counselors

Report
Appraisal and Its Application to
Counseling
COUN 550
Saint Joseph College
Personality, Clinical, and Developmental Assessment
For Class #7
Copyright © 2005 by R. Halstead. All rights reserved.
Class Objectives
Personality Testing
Clinical Assessment
Case of Lawana
Assessment of Development
Personality Testing
Useful in describing and understanding behavior
Used in clinical settings to identify personal problems and
diagnose psychopathologies and can be used to evaluate
change after therapy (growth)
In general are not as valid and reliable as aptitude or
achievement tests due to the difficulty involved with the
measurement of the construct
Area of controversy heavily influenced by differing theories
of what personality is and how it how develops
Techniques for Measuring
Personality
Objective (MMPI, MBTI)
Projective
Verbal (Sentence & story completion, questions)
Visual (Rorschach, TAT)
Drawing (House-Tree-Person, client shares
perceptions & reactions)
Manipulative (Dolls, etc. Useful with children
and disabilities)
Objective Techniques
Personality Questionnaires
Most popular and widely used objective technique
Measures various personality dimensions; easily
administered
1. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2
(MMPI-2) – most widely used personality adjustment
inventory with special populations
2. California Psychological Inventory (CPI); assess
‘typical’ personality dimensions, ‘normal’ patterns
Projective Techniques
Assumes individual will project their own
perceptions, feelings, and attitudes when
respond freely to series of stimuli
Ex: Rorshach
 10 bilaterally symmetrical inkblots
 Measures cognitive & ideational processes
 High consistency, less evidence for validity
Projective Techniques con’t.
Ex: Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
One of most frequently used assessment procedures
developed by Henry A. Murray
20 cards with ambiguous pictures
Validity and reliability questionable - no standard
scoring procedures; problems with interrater
reliability
Reveals dominant drives, emotions, sentiments,
complexes, and conflicts of personality
Problems in Personality Assessment
1.
Response Sets/Systematic Bias
tendency to deliberately distort responses in particular
direction
acquiescence = tendency to agree with statements
social desirability = tendency to respond in deliberate
manner rather than accurately
2. Cultural Sensitivity
Minority groups score higher on pathology than majority
groups Ex: (MMPI-2)
Clinical Assessment
Process used to gain information about a client
when interested in diagnosing problems and
want to describe behavior, predict future
behavior or evaluate therapeutic interventions
Current trends in clinical assessment
Increase in quick, diagnostic indicators (i.e. Clinical
Structured Interviews based on DSM Axis I)
Decrease in full clinical test batteries
Choice of technique influenced by theoretical
foundation and type of decision to be made
Informal and Formal Techniques
Pencil-and-paper inventories
Projective techniques
Checklists
Situational tests
Interviews
Simulations
Inventories
Work samples
Assessment Approaches
Behavioral Assessment
Observation of specific behavior; Problems with reactivity, biases.
Highly Structured.
Self-Monitoring – widely used; Can be used therapeutically or as
data-gathering. Also reactive type of measurement because
attention focused on targeted behavior and individual knows
what events to observe
Psychodiagnostic Testing
Instruments use to detect underlying pathology
Assessment Approaches con’t.
Neuropsychological Assessment Batteries
Testing for brain damage or for organicity. Brain damage often
affects cognitive functions, memory. Halstead-Reitan
Neuropsychological Test battery
Structured Interview
An important tool in clinical assessment
More attention on cognitive areas for knowing and understanding
a client the purpose to help provide info to guide diagnosis
and selection of a treatment plan.
Assessment Approaches con’t.
Psychological Case Study
An account of a person in a situation, focusing on
a relatively short, self-contained part and
unique aspects personality.
Purpose is to find solution to problem by looking
at how and why a client acted
Assessment of Development
Valuable tool in screening, diagnosis, & placement of
individuals; program planning and evaluating
programs
Important in understanding cognitive, ego,
interpersonal, moral and psychosocial development
Domains of Interest in Developmental
Assessment
communication skills
cognitive skills
physical development
emotional development
social development
self-care skills
independent living skills
work habits and adjustment skills
adjustment problems
Methods of Assessing Development
direct testing
naturalistic observation
interviewing
multiple measures

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