Unit 1: The Sentence and The Paragraphs

L e c t u re r : T R Ầ N T H Ị N H À N
C l a s s : 1 2 C TA 1
Te x t b o o k :
E f f e c t i v e A c a d e m i c Wr i t i n g 1
Alice Savage
Masoud Shafiei
Unit 1: The Sentence and The Paragraphs
 I. Rhetorical focus:
1. Paragraph organization
2. Formatting a paragraph
3. Unity and coherence in a paragraphs
 II. Language focus:
1. Simple structure
2. Capitalization and end punctuation
3. Fragments and run – on sentences
I. Rhetorical focus:
The Paragraph
A paragraph is a group of sentences about a topic.
1. Paragraph organization
Topic sentence:
 First or second sentence
 Introduce the topic
 Explain what the writer will say about = Controlling Idea
My friend is an honest person.
Controlling idea
Supporting Sentence
Add information about the topic and controlling idea with:
 Definitions
 Explanations
 Examples
Concluding sentence
 Final sentence
 Restates the main idea
 Also include:
 Warn the reader
 Make prediction
 Give an opinion about the topic
2. Formating a paragraph
 Margins on the right and left ( 1 inch from the edge)
 Spacing ( double space)
 Indenting the first sentence
 Connected sentences
 Title ( 1 word or a group of words)
3. Unity
All the sentences support a single idea.
 Supporting details are organized logically
 Use:
 Time
 Space
 Order of important
Unit 2: Descriptive Paragraphs
Descriptive Organization
A descriptive paragraph describes a person, place,or
thing so that the reader can picture in in his or her mind.
Descriptive Organization
Topic sentence:
 Introduce the item
 Writer’s general feeling or opinion about the item
My special treasure is a picture of my mother on her fifteenth birthday.
Descriptive Organization
Supporting Sentences:
 Give some background information
 Descriptive details: how the item looks, smells, feels,
or taste.
 How the writer feels about the items
Descriptive Organization
Concluding Sentence
Restate the idea in the topic sentence using different words
Topic sentence:
My special treasure is a picture of my mother on her fifteenth birthday.
Concluding sentence:
This picture of my mother is most valuable possession.
Unit 3: Example Paragraphs
An example paragraph gives examples to support the
Topic Sentence
 Introduce the topic
 Also include the controlling idea
My mother is an a good neighbor.
Controlling idea
Supporting Sentences
 Middle sentences give examples to support the
controlling idea.
 These examples give clear picture of the writer’s
specific meaning.
Supporting Sentences
(Effective Examples)
Using examples as Supporting Details:
Effective Examples:
 Specific
 Related to the controlling idea
She always invites people from our neighborhood over for dinner.
Every year she hosts a back-t0-school party for the children on our block.
Supporting Sentences
(Effective Examples)
An example often begins with the phrases:
For example, For instance followed by a comma, or
semicolon to connect.
He likes to play in shape. For example, he runs six miles everyday.
Our teacher is entertaining; for instance, sometimes he uses puppets to teach
Concluding Sentence
 Restate the topic and what the writer has said about
Unit 4: Process Paragraphs
A process paragraph describes the steps necessary to
perform a process or a task.
Process Paragraph
 Topic sentence: Introduce the process
 Supporting Sentences:
 Describe a sequence of steps with detail information
 Also give background details or explain why it is
 Also include the tools needed for the task
 Concluding Sentence:
 Restate the topic
 Also include suggestion or warning

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