Module 22 Language Chapter 7, Pages 265-274 Essentials of Understanding Psychology- Sixth Edition PSY110 Psychology © Richard Goldman October 31, 2006 Grammar: Language’s Language Phonology – Study of basic parts of speech Phonemes: 58 different sounds used in English 869 different sounds used world wide Smallest language uses 15 phonemes Largest uses 141 phonemes Syntax – Rules of sentence structure Semantics – The meaning of words Language Development 3 months – 1 year 6 months – 8 months Babbling – practicing making sounds Can differentiate and imitate all 869 phonemes Start to specialize on sounds in their environment Begins to lose ability identify unheard phonemes (Makes it very difficult or impossible to acquire the ability to “hear” (perceive) or create these sounds later in life.) ~1 year Stop producing sound not being heard Language Production ~1 year ~2 year Vocabulary of several hundred words Telegraphic Speech - Start short sentences (Subject and predicate without other parts of grammar) ~3 years Vocabulary of ~50 words Start grouping words together ~2 ½ years Comprehension precedes production (They can understand some of what you say before the can speak.) Start with short words with b, d, m, p, & t. Can pluralize nouns and create past tense Many overgeneralization errors ~5 years Has acquired basic rules of language Language Acquisition Learning-theory Approach Language is learned through reinforcement and conditioning. The more parents speak to their children the more language they learn Language-acquisition Device (neural system) Humans are born with an innate linguistic capability. All languages share a universal grammar.