Chapter 5

Report
ADVANCED
WORD POWER
Second Edition
BETH JOHNSON
JANET M. GOLDSTEIN
© 2011 Townsend Press
Unit One: Chapter 5
• copious
• meander
• dearth
• peripheral
• eloquent
• substantiate
• jargon
• unobtrusive
• levity
• vacillate
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
1 copious
– adjective
• The food at the party was too copious; the guests stuffed
themselves, but there were still platters and bowls of food left over.
• Weeds are copious in Charlene’s garden, but flowers are few.
Copious means
A. of poor quality.
B. plentiful.
C. persuasive.
Photo: Keith Weller-USDA
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
1 copious
– adjective
• The food at the party was too copious; the guests stuffed
themselves, but there were still platters and bowls of food left over.
• Weeds are copious in Charlene’s garden, but flowers are few.
Copious means
A. of poor quality.
B. plentiful.
C. persuasive.
The food must have been plentiful if
there was so much left over. The few
flowers are contrasted with the
plentiful weeds.
Photo: Keith Weller-USDA
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
2 dearth
– noun
• The director of the Class Night show said gloomily, “We have a
dearth of talent this year. Not one of these acts is worth putting
on stage.”
• The dearth of snow this winter disappointed the children. They
had received new sleds for Christmas but never got a chance to
use them.
Dearth means
A. a surplus.
B. a sufficient amount.
C. a shortage.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
2 dearth
– noun
• The director of the Class Night show said gloomily, “We have a
dearth of talent this year. Not one of these acts is worth putting
on stage.”
• The dearth of snow this winter disappointed the children. They
had received new sleds for Christmas but never got a chance to
use them.
Dearth means
A. a surplus.
B. a sufficient amount.
C. a shortage.
If there wasn’t a single act worth performing, then there was a
shortage of talent. If the children never had a chance to use their new
sleds, there must have been a shortage of snow.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
3 eloquent
– adjective
• Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address is considered one of the most
eloquent speeches of all time, but on the day he gave it, many in
the audience were insulted. They thought it was too short.
• The director of the shelter for battered women wrote an eloquent
letter to the newspapers, movingly describing the victims’ plight
and pleading for donations.
Eloquent means
A. stirring.
B. confusing.
C. simple.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
3 eloquent
– adjective
• Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address is considered one of the most
eloquent speeches of all time, but on the day he gave it, many in
the audience were insulted. They thought it was too short.
• The director of the shelter for battered women wrote an eloquent
letter to the newspapers, movingly describing the victims’ plight
and pleading for donations.
Eloquent means
A. stirring.
B. confusing.
C. simple.
In contrast to its shortness, Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address was a
stirring speech. The word movingly suggests that the letter was
stirring.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
4 jargon
– noun
• “It’s essential that you learn the vocabulary of this subject,” the
teacher warned us, “or the jargon, if you prefer. Whatever you
call it, it will be on the test.”
• Bernice wanted to make a home-cooked meal for her friends but
was puzzled by all the jargon in the cookbook. What did braise
mean? Or sauté? Or mince?
Jargon means
A. grammatical errors.
B. technical language.
C. humor.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
4 jargon
– noun
• “It’s essential that you learn the vocabulary of this subject,” the
teacher warned us, “or the jargon, if you prefer. Whatever you
call it, it will be on the test.”
• Bernice wanted to make a home-cooked meal for her friends but
was puzzled by all the jargon in the cookbook. What did braise
mean? Or sauté? Or mince?
Jargon means
A. grammatical errors.
B. technical language.
C. humor.
The teacher’s phrase vocabulary of this subject suggests that the
students will be tested on technical language specific to that subject.
The second item lists three examples of technical language used in
cooking: braise, sauté, and mince.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
5 levity
– noun
• The playwright George Bernard Shaw once remarked that his
method was to say very serious things, but with “the utmost levity.”
He wanted to convey weighty ideas through wit and humor.
• The guidance counselor thought Kirk’s attitude showed too much
levity. “You should laugh less and spend more time thinking about
serious things,” she said.
Levity means
A. seriousness.
B. surprise.
C. lightheartedness.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
5 levity
– noun
• The playwright George Bernard Shaw once remarked that his
method was to say very serious things, but with “the utmost levity.”
He wanted to convey weighty ideas through wit and humor.
• The guidance counselor thought Kirk’s attitude showed too much
levity. “You should laugh less and spend more time thinking about
serious things,” she said.
Levity means
A. seriousness.
B. surprise.
C. lightheartedness.
The words wit and humor suggest that levity means “lightheartedness.”
If Kirk laughs too much, then he is showing lightheartedness instead of
a more serious attitude.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
6 meander
– verb
• “Come straight home from school,” Mom always said to us.
“Don’t meander.”
• The brook meandered through the valley, disappearing into the
underbrush, then coming into view again, and here and there
even turning back on itself.
Meander means
A. to wander.
B. to hurry.
C. to fall.
Photo: Bill Raften-USFWS
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
6 meander
– verb
• “Come straight home from school,” Mom always said to us.
“Don’t meander.”
• The brook meandered through the valley, disappearing into the
underbrush, then coming into view again, and here and there
even turning back on itself.
Meander means
A. to wander.
B. to hurry.
C. to fall.
The children are told not to wander, but
come straight home. The phrase turning
back on itself suggests that the brook,
instead of going straight, wandered
through the valley.
Photo: Bill Raften-USFWS
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
7 peripheral
– adjective
• The meeting to discuss the new road went slowly because the
committee kept bringing up peripheral issues, such as the need
for traffic lights on the old road.
• The speaker kept getting sidetracked because audience members
repeatedly asked questions about peripheral matters that had
little to do with her topic.
Peripheral means
A. essential.
B. of little importance.
C. doubtful.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
7 peripheral
– adjective
• The meeting to discuss the new road went slowly because the
committee kept bringing up peripheral issues, such as the need
for traffic lights on the old road.
• The speaker kept getting sidetracked because audience members
repeatedly asked questions about peripheral matters that had
little to do with her topic.
Peripheral means
A. essential.
B. of little importance.
C. doubtful.
The old road’s needs were of little importance to a discussion about the
new road. Questions about matters that had little to do with the
subject were of little importance to the speaker’s topic.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
8 substantiate
– verb
• “If you seek damages under a ‘lemon law,’” the lawyer explained,
“be prepared to substantiate your claim that your car is a lemon.
You’ll need to show all your repair bills and correspondence.”
• A man in our town claims to be 125 years old, but he’s unable to
substantiate this. He has no birth certificate, baptismal certificate,
court records, or witnesses.
Substantiate means
A. to report.
B. to repeat.
C. to prove.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
8 substantiate
– verb
• “If you seek damages under a ‘lemon law,’” the lawyer explained,
“be prepared to substantiate your claim that your car is a lemon.
You’ll need to show all your repair bills and correspondence.”
• A man in our town claims to be 125 years old, but he’s unable to
substantiate this. He has no birth certificate, baptismal certificate,
court records, or witnesses.
Substantiate means
A. to report.
B. to repeat.
C. to prove.
Repair bills and correspondence are ways to prove that a car is a
“lemon.” Birth certificates, baptismal certificates, court records, and
witnesses are ways to prove someone’s age.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
9 unobtrusive
– adjective
• Jared arrived late for class. Hoping to remain unobtrusive, he
quickly slid into a seat at the end of the last row.
• When his favorite author autographed books at the mall, Desmond
expected to see a dazzling celebrity. Instead, she turned out to be a
small, colorless, unobtrusive person with a timid smile.
Unobtrusive means
A. not noticeable.
B. not easily forgotten.
C. not important.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
9 unobtrusive
– adjective
• Jared arrived late for class. Hoping to remain unobtrusive, he
quickly slid into a seat at the end of the last row.
• When his favorite author autographed books at the mall, Desmond
expected to see a dazzling celebrity. Instead, she turned out to be a
small, colorless, unobtrusive person with a timid smile.
Unobtrusive means
A. not noticeable.
B. not easily forgotten.
C. not important.
A late student would try to make himself
not noticeable. In contrast to a dazzling
celebrity, the small, colorless author was
almost not noticeable.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
10 vacillate
– verb
• Ajay reaches decisions very slowly. For instance, when we went to
get ice cream last night, he vacillated between vanilla fudge and
chocolate chip for fifteen minutes.
• Should they see a movie or go bowling? Ali and Vanessa vacillated
so long over the decision that when they finally decided, it was too
late to do either one.
Vacillate means
A. to speak.
B. to hesitate.
C. to select.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
10 vacillate
– verb
• Ajay reaches decisions very slowly. For instance, when we went to
get ice cream last night, he vacillated between vanilla fudge and
chocolate chip for fifteen minutes.
• Should they see a movie or go bowling? Ali and Vanessa vacillated
so long over the decision that when they finally decided, it was too
late to do either one.
Vacillate means
A. to speak.
B. to hesitate.
C. to select.
Ajay hesitated for fifteen minutes, trying to make a decision about ice
cream. Ali and Vanessa hesitated so long trying to decide what to do
that they didn’t have enough time to do anything.

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