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Report
Firefighters Support
Foundation
Where’s the Cavalry?
-------Initial Management of a Structure
Fire with Limited Manpower
v1.0
About FSF
The Firefighters Support Foundation is a 501c3
non-profit organization whose primary
mission is to develop, produce and distribute
training programs to firefighters, EMTs, Search
& Rescue personnel, and Emergency
Management professionals. All of our
programs are distributed free of charge.
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Permission
Permission is granted to reproduce or
distribute this material so long as the
Firefighters Support Foundation is
credited as the source
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Accompanying Video
This PowerPoint presentation accompanies the
video presentation of the same title.
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Presenter
Fire Chief Scott Alderman has been in the fire service for 23 years. Chief
Alderman originally started as a volunteer firefighter with Piney Grove Fire
Department in 1990. He was appointed Chief of Lewisville Fire Department
in 2002. Chief Alderman has served as President of the Forsyth County Fire
and Rescue Association, Piedmont N.C. Firefighters Association, and N.C.
State Firemen’s Association. He is a member of the North Carolina
International Association of Arson Investigators (NCIAAI), and the
International Association of Fire Chiefs (IAFC).
He holds an Associate’s degree in Applied Science from Guilford Technical
Community College and a Bachelors of Science degree in Fire Safety
Engineering from UNC-Charlotte. He also graduated from the Executive Fire
Officer program at the National Fire Academy.
Scott lives in Lewisville, N.C. with his wife Sharon and their three children,
Kristen, Kayla and Chase
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Who is this class for?
• Is your department a volunteer / combination
department?
• Do you respond to structure fires in your first
in response area not knowing how much or
when help will show up?
• What do you do when you roll up on a
working house fire with just you or another
fellow firefighter on the truck?
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The Issues
• Commonly volunteer / combination departments
find themselves arriving on the scene of a working
fire quicker and with limited manpower to perform
firefighting duties.
• Jobs, family, time of day and other commitments
impact a volunteer’s availability to respond to an
incident.
• The economic climate has led many communities to
impose hiring freezes or reduce staffing when
someone is off.
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Purpose
In this course we will discuss firefighting tactics
in low manpower situations, OSHA’s twoin/two-out rule and combative command.
Essential skills that can help keep you safe,
and initiate an effective fire ground operation
while the Calvary is on the way.
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Types of Fire Departments
Majority of the nations fire departments are
Volunteer or Combination type departments,
responding with only one or two firefighters
initially from the fire station.
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Types of U.S. FDs
Type of Department
All Career
Mostly Career
Mostly Volunteer
Volunteer
No of Depts
Percent
Percent of U.S.
Population
Protected
2550
1865
5530
20200
8.50%
6.20%
18.30%
67%
48.10%
17.40%
16.60%
17.90%
Source: NFPA Fire Service Inventory, and 2011 NFPA Survey of Fire Departments.
Type of department is broken into four categories. All career departments are
comprised of 100% career firefighters. Mostly career is comprised of 51 to 99%
career firefighters, while mostly volunteer is comprised of 1 to 50% career
firefighters. All volunteer departments are comprised of 100% volunteer
firefighters.
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What about your department?
• How many firefighters are responding on your
first out truck?
• Does the time of day affect the number of
firefighters your department puts on the
scene?
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OSHA Two-In/Two-Out Rule
• 1910.134 – Respiratory Regulation
• Two or more fire fighters must always be sent
in together and remain in visual or voice
contact with one another at all times
• At least two standby personnel must be
located outside the fire area
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OSHA Two-In,/Two-Out Rule (2)
The “two in/two out” requirement does not take
effect until fire fighters begin to perform
interior structural fire fighting.
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OSHA Two-In/Two-Out Rule (3)
While the fire is in the incipient stage (as
determined by the incident commander or
other person in charge), or when emergency
rescue operations are required before the
entire team has assembled, the standard does
not require two-member teams inside and
outside the structure.
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Two-In/Two-Out Rule Application
• You need to learn how OSHA applies to your
department
• Application to volunteer personnel
(municipal/county department or non-profit
department) depends on the department and
how they treat their volunteers, (i.e. stipends,
pay for calls/trainings, etc.)
• Seek advice from the State Labor Department
and Legal Counsel
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NFPA 1500
• Chapter 8 – Emergency Operations
• Operate in crews of two or more
• One member permitted to engage in another
activity such as IC, apparatus operator,
provided communication is maintained with
interior crew
• Task should not be assigned if abandoning to
assist or perform a rescue jeopardizes any
firefighter
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NFPA 1500 Application
• Adopted by Authority Having Jurisdiction
• They are Industry Standards
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Modern Fire Behavior
• Underwriters Laboratories has performed
extensive testing on fire behavior in modern
homes. See UL’s website for additional
information.
• UL research has determined that structure
fires today can increase in temperature from
250 degrees to 1500 degrees in as little as 10
seconds
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Fire Growth
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Thoughts While Responding
• Where is the incident location, as it relates to
the next in apparatus?
• Where is the closest water supply and what
type is it?
• Do you have access to the scene, with
traditional fire trucks?
• Are there enough resources responding?
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IIDEAL - I
Use the Acronym (IDEAL)
(I)
Identify arriving units (Engine 1)
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IDEAL - D
(D)
Describe what you see (height, type of
construction, occupancy, smoke/fire
conditions) MVA’s (# of vehicles,
minor/moderate/major damage, # of
patients)
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IDEAL - E
(E)
Explain what you intend to do
(offensive, defensive attack)
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IDEAL - A
(A)
Assume command (Formal or Combative)
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IDEAL - L
(L)
Let incoming units know what you want
them to do (Assignments)
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On The Scene
• Speak to owners, witnesses, etc.
• Walk around the structure (360)
• Control the utilities if possible – Gas (natural
or propane), power, etc.
• Is there anything visible thru doors or
windows, or do you hear anything to indicate
a rescue situation?
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One The Scene (2)
• Confirm the location of the fire
• Building construction (1900’s versus 2000’s)
• If you determine a rescue is needed:
•
•
vent, enter and search
throw a ladder
• Stretch lines, consider exterior attack.
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Transitional Attack
• Knock fire down from exterior
• Once manpower is available, move from an
exterior operation to an interior operation
• Upper floors: throw a ground ladder and
attack
• Straight stream and fog stream?
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Transitional Attack
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Fog vs. Straight Stream
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Training Considerations
• Training should include how to operate
equipment efficiently with limited manpower
• Train to save steps (learn from a waitress)
• Set up your trucks and equipment so you can
operate efficiently, especially in those early
minutes of a structure fire
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