Importance of Control Function on Management

Report
Importance of Control Function
on Management
Dr. Bagus Nurcahyo
Program Studi Manajemen Pemasaran
Direktorat Program D3 Bisnis & Kewirausahaan
BnR-Peng.Manajemen-Chap-10
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Importance of Control
• Critical link back to planning
– No control often sidetracks a good plan
• Facilitates goal achievement
– Are objectives being met?
– If not, WHY not?
• Makes delegation easier/better
– Provides feedback on performance of delegated
authority
• Opportunity for delegation over-ride
• Trust, but verify
portion of management
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Three Basic Types of Control
• Feedforward Control
– Prevents “anticipated” problems
– Built in at the start (or before)
• Concurrent Control
– Occurs while activity in progress
– Ensures standards being met; Correct before they
become too costly
– Often built into new technology
• Feedback Control
– Control after action has occurred
– Good feedback on effectiveness of planning
– Most popular
Easiest???
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Personality Traits
• Developed from inborn tendencies and our
environment
– Nature AND Nurture
• Six traits impact interpersonal relations and job
performance:
– Extroversion
– Agreeableness
– Conscientiousness
– Emotional Stability (Neuroticism)
– Openness to Experience
– Self MonitoringBnR-Peng.Manajemen-Chap-10
of Behavior- How we are seen
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Personality Types - Background
• Everyone has a preferred mode of operation within
the four categories:
– Where we get our energy for life
• Extroverted or Introverted
– How we see reality (Take in information)
• Sensing or iNtuition
– How we judge that reality (Make decisions)
• Thinking or Feeling
– Our orientation with world on day-to-day basis
• Judging or Perceiving
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Extraversion vs. Introversion
• Extroverts (E) - energy from external sources
– People and things
– Think out loud
– Empowered by others; Sense of connectedness
• Introverts (I) - energy from internal world
– Ideas and concepts
– Wait to speak until ideas fully formulated
– Spatiality
• “What” is said, not how much
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Gathering Information
• Sensation (S) type individuals
– Prefer routine and order
– Search for concrete details (Specific and exact)
– Prefer to work with established facts
• Intuitive (N) type individuals
– Overall perspective – “Big Picture”
• Generalities and approximations
– Rely on intuition
– Dislike routine
– Look for abstract
possibilities from info gathered7
BnR-Peng.Manajemen-Chap-10
Evaluating Information
• Feeling (F) type individuals:
– Based on personal, subjective value systems
– Act on what they believe to be right
– May adapt to others’ wishes (Approval) or avoid
issues that may cause disagreement
• Thinking (T) type individuals:
– Rely on logic and objective considerations
– Downplay emotion in problem solving and
decision-making
– Logical, rational, impartial
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Judging vs. Perceiving
• Judging (J)
– More comfortable with scheduled, structured
environment
– Neat, orderly, and settled
– Organized and purposeful
• Perceiving (P)
– More comfortable with open, casual environment
– Flexible and diverse
– Adaptability – “Play
it by ear”
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The Paul Principle
• Gradual obsolescence of leaders as they lose touch
w/organization they lead
– Become too conservative (Risk-averse)
– Resist innovation and change (Stagnation)
– Fail to take advantage of technological
breakthroughs (Comfortable)
– Find answers for problems from their youth
• Can’t teach an old dog new tricks
• Antidotes?
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Perception
• Webster’s:
– “A mental image”
– “Physical sensation interpreted in the light of
experience”
– “Process people use to make sense of their
environment”
• XO says:
– A bias that can affect the way in which we process
information
– Frequently leads to an incorrect deduction
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Why Important?
• Plays a powerful role in relationships with
superiors, peers, and subordinates
• You will be judged and often judge others on
the perception of intentions and effectiveness
• Normally based on:
– Limited observation
– Incomplete information
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Aspects of Perception
• Fundamental Attribution Error:
– Tendency to overestimate the dispositional causes
of behavior and downplay the environmental factors
in others behavior
• Self-Serving Bias:
– Blame external attributions for failure
(environment/situation)
– Internal attributions (Intelligence/charisma)
responsible for success
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Aspects of Perception
• Actor/Observer Difference:
– People observing an action are much more likely
than the actor to make the fundamental attribution
error
• Self-Fulfilling Prophecy:
– Expectations or predictions play a causal role in
bringing about the events we predict (Forced
Eventuality/Scenario Fulfillment)
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Non-Verbal Communication
• Messages sent through actions and behaviors
rather than words
– Not “what you say, but how you say it”
• 75-90% of our info is from non-verbal
communication
• Message behind the message? (Emotion)
– Physical appearance
– Facial expressions/Eye contact
– Body language
• Aggressive, defensive, disconnected,
relaxed
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– ProxemicsBnR-Peng.Manajemen-Chap-10
Non-Verbal Communication
• How important is it?
– 93% of emotional impact
• Message breakdown
– Verbal (Spoken words)
– Vocal (Pitch, tone, timbre)
– Body Language
10%
30%
60%
What happens when words and
actions contradict?
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Using Non-verbal Advantageously
• Become aware
• Don’t contradict words w/body language
• Know facial expressions
– Benefits of smile/head nod
– Direct your eye contact
• Gesturing with purpose
• Note personal/cultural differences
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Listening Barriers
• Environmental
– External – noise/other stimuli
– Internal – stress/exhaustion/personal
issues
• Physiological
– Speaking vs. Thinking Rate
– Ailment – loss of hearing/flu
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Listening Barriers
(CONT)
• Psychological
– Selective Listening
– Negative Listening Attitudes
– Personal Reactions
• Words have meanings
• Buzz words
– Poor Motivation
• Lack of preparation
• Goals help you focus
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Communication & the Four
Management Functions
• Planning:
– Gather information
– Write memos, letters, reports
– Meet to formulate plans
• Organizing:
– Gather info about state of organization
– Communicate new structure
• Directing:
– Communicate plan and strategy (How and Why)
– Motivate employees
• Controlling:
– Feedback; “How are we doing?”
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Assertiveness
• Stand up for your rights in a way that
recognizes the rights of others to do the same.
• Differs from two other means of dealing with
conflict:
– Acquiescence – Back down easily when challenged
– Aggression – Achieve aims by attacking or hurting
others.
Assertiveness achieves aims by direct
communication in an open, fair and
positive manner.
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Assertiveness
•
•
•
•
•
•
Take responsibility for what you say and do.
Be clear about what you want.
Speak up for what you need.
Learn to say no.
Exhibit positive inner dialogue.
Be persistent.
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Constructive Feedback
• Feedback should be helpful. (Positive or
negative)
• Be specific. Focus on behaviors.
• Be descriptive. Stick to the facts.
• Be timely.
• Be flexible. May have to wait for a better time
to give the feedback.
• Give both positive and negative feedback.
• Avoid blame and embarrassment.
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Moral Leadership
• What is moral leadership?
– Distinguishing right from wrong AND doing
what’s right
• Having the courage to take an unpopular stand
– Placing others/organization ahead of oneself
• Why important?
– People want honest and trustworthy leaders
– All leaders face ethical dilemmas
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Levels of Moral Development
Pre-conventional
Level
Individuals seek
external rewards
 Obey authority to
avoid consequences
Motivated solely by
self interest
Take what you can get
Leadership tends to be
autocratic toward
others; Aimed at
personal advancement
Conventional
Level
Principled
Level
People conform to
behavioral expectations
of group
Rules, norms, and
values of the group are
followed
Leaders guided by
internalized set of
principles (Universal
right or wrong)
Leaders may disobey
rules/laws that violate
universal principles
 If honesty is the rule,
people will be honest
 If dishonesty is the
rule, people will be
dishonest
BnR-Peng.Manajemen-Chap-10
 Internalized values
more important that
others’ expectations
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Authoritarian Management
• Direct and control subordinates
• Efficiency and Stability paramount
– Power, purpose, and privilege reside with top
management
– Emphasizes tight top-down control,
standardization, and specialization
• Followers given a routine and controlled along with
machines and materials
• Management by impersonal measurement and
analysis
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Participative Management
• Encourages participation and suggestions
• Uses teamwork, but mindset remains
paternalistic:
– Top leaders determine purpose/goals, make
final decisions, and decide rewards
– Leaders still responsible for outcome
– No real distribution of power and authority
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Stewardship
• Employees empowered to make decisions
– Control over how they do their jobs
– Localize decisions/power to those closest to work
– Tap into energy and commitment of followers
• Leaders accountable to others as well as to the organization
• Partnership assumption
–Joint responsibility/accountability
• Facilitate vice control followers. Guide without dominating.
• Recognize and reward the value of labor – rewards tied to
success of the organization
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Servant Leadership
• Transcend self-interest to:
– Serve the needs of others
– Help others grow and develop
– Provide opportunities for others to gain
• Belief – making others better makes the
whole organization/group better
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