Personality

Report
Myers Ch. 10
PERSONALITY
FOUR THEORIES
1) Psychoanalytic Perspective
 2) Humanistic Perspective
 3) Socio-Cultural
 4) Trait Perspective
 5) Social-Cognitive Perspective

HANDOUT 10-3—PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY
Reverse 1, 2, 7, 9, 13, and 15
 Add all 15 items
 Range 15-75—higher scores reflecting a greater
agreement with Freud

Psychoanalytic Theory:
--personality is derived from
childhood sexuality and
unconscious motivations
In other words…
1)if you are a female you
have always wanted a
penis…end of story.
2)if you are a male you have
always been afraid of
losing yours…you’ve
probably had a mad crush
on your mom too.
Say hello to our boy, Freud
EXPLORING THE UNCONSCIOUS

Structure of Personality



ID—the out of control
pleasure seeker (connect
to Hedonic principle of
motivation)
EGO—the compromiser
SUPEREGO—uptight rule
follower
FREUDIAN ACTIVITY TIME!

Find your fellow
components of my
psychoanalytic
personality
THE PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES
PHALLIC STAGE—MALES

Oedipus Complex—boys
figure out they have a
penis, they’re pretty
pumped about it, they
develop unconscious
sexual desires for their
moms, and become
afraid of their dads
finding out and
castrating them.
PHALLIC STAGE--FEMALES


Penis envy—you get mad
at your mom because
she didn’t give you a
penis.
Electra Complex—girls
get jealous of their
moms and compete for
possession of their
father.
PHALLIC STAGE


Good news…superego
develops and
identification happens
Bad news…if you don’t
make it out of this stage
in one piece you are
going to forever to
search for a mother-like
figure for a significant
other.
FIXATIONS




—when the psychosexual
stages don’t really turn out
that well for you…
Oral fixation—smoking,
excessive eating, chewing
on pens
Anal fixation—need for
control, hatred of
waste, ”you’re being anal”
= pop culture + Freud.
Phallic fixation—
homosexuality, authority
issues, rejection of gender
norms
ASSESSING THE UNCONSCIOUS



Psychoanalysis
Free association
Projective Tests


Thematic Apperception
Test (TAT)
Rorschach inkblot test
RORSCHACH VS. TAT
DEFENSE MECHANISMS—HANDOUT 10-4








1) Repression
2) Regression
3) Reaction Formation
4) Projection
5) Rationalization
6) Displacement
7) Sublimation
8) Denial
NEO FREUDIANS

Karen Horney—gender
bias






Submissive,
Aggressive
Detached
Alfred Adler—inferiority
complex
Erikson
Carl Jung—




personal unconscious
collective unconscious
Persona
Archetypes
2) HUMANISTIC PERSONALITY THEORY
(SELF RATING SCALE & MCSD SCALE)




Focus on the self
Focus on the positive
Abraham Maslow—selfactualization
Carl Rogers—
unconditional positive
regard


Old School: "The Nest"
Very pervasive in poppsychology (i.e., ‘the
self-esteem’ movement)
MCSD—SOCIAL DESIRABILITY SCALE



Low Scorers (0–8). About one respondent in six earns a score between 0
and 8. Such respondents answered in a socially undesirable direction much
of the time. It may be that they are more willing than most people to
respond to tests truthfully, even when their answers might meet with social
disapproval.
Average Scorers (9–19). About two respondents in three earn a score from
9 through 19. They tend to show an average degree of concern for the social
desirability of their responses, and it may be that their general behavior
represents an average degree of conformity to social rules and conventions.
High Scorers (20–33). About one respondent in six earns a score between
20 and 33. These respondents may be highly concerned about social
approval and respond to test items in such as way as to avoid the
disapproval of people who may read their responses. Their general behavior
may show high conformity to social rules and conventions.
3) SOCIO-CULTURAL PERSPECTIVES



I-C Scale (Triandis)
BSRI (Sandra Bem)
40 Studies
4) TRAIT THEORY (EAS & BIG 5 ASSESSMENTS)







Trait—pattern of
behavior
Gordon Allport
Hans Eysenck
MBTI—Myers-Briggs
Type Indicator
MMPI
EAS Scale
BSRI
THE BIG FIVE--ONLINE ASSESSMENT



Costa & McCrae
Assessment in packet
Best trait personality
test to date






Conscientiousness
Agreeableness
Neuroticism
Openness
Extraversion
(OCEAN)
EXTROVERSION VS. INTROVERSION


How do you define
these personality types?
Which one are you?
5) SOCIAL-COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE

Albert Bandura—
reciprocal determinism


Our personality is shaped
by cognition,
environment, and
behavior
Self-efficacy—you expect
your efforts will be
successful
COMPLETE THE PERSONAL REACTION SURVEY
PERSON VS. SITUATION?
Self-monitor assessment in packet
 Do we display different personalities in
different situations?
 What do the following say about your
personality?

 Music
preference
 Bedroom/personal space
 Facebook profile
 Email/text communication
Take the ASQ & the ANSIE
 ASQ=assessment of pessimism/explanatory
style
 ANSIE=assessment of self-efficacy: range 0-40

 Low
score= high internal locus of control
 High score=high external locus of control
INTERNAL VS. EXTERNAL LOCUS OF CONTROL


Julian Rotter
Martin Seligman—

learned helplessness
DEAR FUTURE SELF...
Write a letter to your future self applying insight
gained from the assessments you have taken
over the last two weeks. What did you learn
about yourself? What aspects of your
personality do you hope are stable? What
aspects do you hope to change and how?
 Your letter should address a psychodynamic,
humanistic, socio-cultural, trait theory, and
social-cognitive perspectives .


similar documents