Myers Ch. 10 PERSONALITY FOUR THEORIES 1) Psychoanalytic Perspective 2) Humanistic Perspective 3) Socio-Cultural 4) Trait Perspective 5) Social-Cognitive Perspective HANDOUT 10-3—PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY Reverse 1, 2, 7, 9, 13, and 15 Add all 15 items Range 15-75—higher scores reflecting a greater agreement with Freud Psychoanalytic Theory: --personality is derived from childhood sexuality and unconscious motivations In other words… 1)if you are a female you have always wanted a penis…end of story. 2)if you are a male you have always been afraid of losing yours…you’ve probably had a mad crush on your mom too. Say hello to our boy, Freud EXPLORING THE UNCONSCIOUS Structure of Personality ID—the out of control pleasure seeker (connect to Hedonic principle of motivation) EGO—the compromiser SUPEREGO—uptight rule follower FREUDIAN ACTIVITY TIME! Find your fellow components of my psychoanalytic personality THE PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES PHALLIC STAGE—MALES Oedipus Complex—boys figure out they have a penis, they’re pretty pumped about it, they develop unconscious sexual desires for their moms, and become afraid of their dads finding out and castrating them. PHALLIC STAGE--FEMALES Penis envy—you get mad at your mom because she didn’t give you a penis. Electra Complex—girls get jealous of their moms and compete for possession of their father. PHALLIC STAGE Good news…superego develops and identification happens Bad news…if you don’t make it out of this stage in one piece you are going to forever to search for a mother-like figure for a significant other. FIXATIONS —when the psychosexual stages don’t really turn out that well for you… Oral fixation—smoking, excessive eating, chewing on pens Anal fixation—need for control, hatred of waste, ”you’re being anal” = pop culture + Freud. Phallic fixation— homosexuality, authority issues, rejection of gender norms ASSESSING THE UNCONSCIOUS Psychoanalysis Free association Projective Tests Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) Rorschach inkblot test RORSCHACH VS. TAT DEFENSE MECHANISMS—HANDOUT 10-4 1) Repression 2) Regression 3) Reaction Formation 4) Projection 5) Rationalization 6) Displacement 7) Sublimation 8) Denial NEO FREUDIANS Karen Horney—gender bias Submissive, Aggressive Detached Alfred Adler—inferiority complex Erikson Carl Jung— personal unconscious collective unconscious Persona Archetypes 2) HUMANISTIC PERSONALITY THEORY (SELF RATING SCALE & MCSD SCALE) Focus on the self Focus on the positive Abraham Maslow—selfactualization Carl Rogers— unconditional positive regard Old School: "The Nest" Very pervasive in poppsychology (i.e., ‘the self-esteem’ movement) MCSD—SOCIAL DESIRABILITY SCALE Low Scorers (0–8). About one respondent in six earns a score between 0 and 8. Such respondents answered in a socially undesirable direction much of the time. It may be that they are more willing than most people to respond to tests truthfully, even when their answers might meet with social disapproval. Average Scorers (9–19). About two respondents in three earn a score from 9 through 19. They tend to show an average degree of concern for the social desirability of their responses, and it may be that their general behavior represents an average degree of conformity to social rules and conventions. High Scorers (20–33). About one respondent in six earns a score between 20 and 33. These respondents may be highly concerned about social approval and respond to test items in such as way as to avoid the disapproval of people who may read their responses. Their general behavior may show high conformity to social rules and conventions. 3) SOCIO-CULTURAL PERSPECTIVES I-C Scale (Triandis) BSRI (Sandra Bem) 40 Studies 4) TRAIT THEORY (EAS & BIG 5 ASSESSMENTS) Trait—pattern of behavior Gordon Allport Hans Eysenck MBTI—Myers-Briggs Type Indicator MMPI EAS Scale BSRI THE BIG FIVE--ONLINE ASSESSMENT Costa & McCrae Assessment in packet Best trait personality test to date Conscientiousness Agreeableness Neuroticism Openness Extraversion (OCEAN) EXTROVERSION VS. INTROVERSION How do you define these personality types? Which one are you? 5) SOCIAL-COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE Albert Bandura— reciprocal determinism Our personality is shaped by cognition, environment, and behavior Self-efficacy—you expect your efforts will be successful COMPLETE THE PERSONAL REACTION SURVEY PERSON VS. SITUATION? Self-monitor assessment in packet Do we display different personalities in different situations? What do the following say about your personality? Music preference Bedroom/personal space Facebook profile Email/text communication Take the ASQ & the ANSIE ASQ=assessment of pessimism/explanatory style ANSIE=assessment of self-efficacy: range 0-40 Low score= high internal locus of control High score=high external locus of control INTERNAL VS. EXTERNAL LOCUS OF CONTROL Julian Rotter Martin Seligman— learned helplessness DEAR FUTURE SELF... Write a letter to your future self applying insight gained from the assessments you have taken over the last two weeks. What did you learn about yourself? What aspects of your personality do you hope are stable? What aspects do you hope to change and how? Your letter should address a psychodynamic, humanistic, socio-cultural, trait theory, and social-cognitive perspectives .