Ch 9 Reviewx

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Learning
This is happening when you respond to a
second stimulus that is similar to a
conditioned stimulus without additional
training
Generalization
This produces a predictable response without
previous training
Unconditioned Stimulus
This occurs naturally and predictably without
training
Unconditioned Response
A stimulus that has nothing to do with the
response before training has started
Neutral stimulus
The ability to respond differently to different
stimuli
Discrimination
A neutral event leads to this after training
Conditioned Response
Psychologist who “discovered” classical
conditioning by accident while researching
digestion in dogs
Ivan Pavlov
This is the loss of a conditioned response when
the conditioned stimulus is removed
Extinction
A type of behavior modification in which an old
response attaches to a new stimulus
Classical conditioning
When a person’s behavior causes the
unpleasant event to stop, this is known as
what type of conditioning
Escape conditioning
What is the term for a stimulus or event that is
likely to increase a behavior
Reinforcement
A schedule that provides reinforcement after a
random number of responses
Variable ratio
Reponses that occur in sequence are known as
what?
Response chain
This type of schedule provides reinforcement
after a specific amount of time
Fixed interval
This type of reinforcer satisfies a biological
need
Primary reinforcer
This is when the removal of unpleasant
consequences increases the frequency of a
behavior
Negative reinforcement
The type of learning that results from
unpleasant consequences
Punishment
or aversive control
Famous psychologist who worked to examine
learnable fears with a subject known as Little
Albert
John B. Watson
In this type of conditioning the person’s
behavior prevents an unpleasant experience
from happening
Avoidance Conditioning
What type of behavior modification is based on
learning from the consequences of behavior?
Operant Conditioning
What time of reinforcement schedule is based
on random amounts of time?
Variable interval
What is the term for reinforcement that
rewards for responses that are closer and
closer to the desired response?
Shaping
Who is the psychologist known for his research
teaching rats to resp0nd in order to receive
food?
B. F. Skinner
What psychologist was known for his
experiment with Bobo the Clown?
Albert Bandura
John B. Watson is associated with what type of
behavior modification (classical, operant or
social learning)?
Classical conditioning
Albert Bandura is associated with what type of
behavior modification (classical, operant or
social learning)?
Social learning
B. F. Skinner is associated with what type of
behavior modification (classical, operant or
social learning)?
Operant conditioning
A mental picture of a place
Cognitive map
What focuses on how information is obtained,
process, and organized?
Cognitive Learning
What is the system for providing tangible
rewards for desired behaviors?
Token economy
What results in a lowered sense of self-esteem
and a lack of effort?
Learned helplessness
What is the term for learning that occurs
without a reinforcer?
Latent learning
What type of learning happens through
observation and imitation?
Modeling
What is the term for learning principles applied
systematically to change people’s actions and
feelings?
Behavior modification
What is learning that involves how people make
decisions and act upon the available
information?
Social learning

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