THE ENVIRONMENT AND MOTOR VEHICLE EMISSIONS

Report
THE ENVIRONMENT AND
MOTOR VEHICLE EMISSIONS
Scale/Effect
CO
LOCAL
High concentrations of
Toxic pollutants
Urban ozone (smog)
REGIONAL
Ozone concentrations
 
 
 
Acid Deposition
GLOBAL
Climate change
Accumulation of persistent
pollutants
 Major contributor
 Contributor

VOC


NOx





CO2

Lead
Other toxic air
pollutants





1
Key observations from an OECD study
MOTOR VEHICLE POLLUTION : Reduction Strategies beyond 2010
• Motor vehicle emissions are major
contributors to health risks and environmental
damage at the local, regional and global
levels
• The rapid growth in vehicle use expected
over the next few decades will impair current
efforts to control emissions of conventional
pollutants while substantially increasing
highway emissions of greenhouse gases.
2
Key observations from an OECD study
MOTOR VEHICLE POLLUTION : Reduction Strategies beyond 2010
• Long-term solutions to environmental
problems such as tropospheric ozone
concentrations and CO2 emissions will
require substantial reductions in fossil fuel
use through a combination of fuel efficiency
improvements, substitution of new, cleaner
fuels and moderate, controlled levels of
annual traffic growth.
3
Key observations from an OECD study
MOTOR VEHICLE POLLUTION : Reduction Strategies beyond 2010
• An integrated approach to transport, energy
and environmental issues will become
increasingly essential to an emissions control
policy capable of achieving long term goals.
4
Transport sector contribution to
atmospheric emissions
OECD Europe and North America, 1986
Other Sectors
100%
80%
Fuel Use for Power
Generation
60%
40%
Residential /
Commerce
20%
Industry
0%
Transport
CO
VOC
NOx
CO2
5
Share of annual U.S. cancer cases
related to air pollution
Industry
25%
Motor
Vehicles
56%
Product
Use
19%
6
Cancer risk shares of motor vehicle related toxic air pollutants
Formaldehyde
4%
Cancer risk shares of
motor vehicle related
Acetaldehyde
toxic air pollutants
1%
Benzene
10%
Gasoline
Particulate
13%
1,3-Butadiene
57%
Diesel
Particulate
15%
7
Urban air quality and motor
vehicle emissions research at
Carleton University
• the measurement and characterization PM and
VOCs in urban micro-environments
• the measurement and characterization of motor
vehicle emissions
• the use and development of emission receptor
and dispersion models to arrive at quantitative
relations between emissions and urban air
quality.
8
Collaborative Research
• Environment Canada’s Environmental Technology
Centre (ETC) in Ottawa: well equipped laboratories,
state of the art research capability.
• Researchers in Environmental Engineering at
Carleton University are collaborating with the
Emissions Research and Measurement Division
at ETC in applying experimental and modelling
techniques in each of these areas.
9
LIGHT DUTY VEHICLE TESTING
Temperature, Abs. Pressure
DISTANC E / SPEED
LOAD (force)
Concentrations
grams/mile
CO CO2
NOx HC
Dilution Air
Analyzer B ench
Dilution Air Filter
Tot a l Hydr oc a r bon Ni t r oge n Oxi de s Ca r bon Di oxi de Ca r bon M onoxi de
V e hic le E xhaus t
He a t e d Fi d
He a t e d NOx
( NDI R)
( NDI R)
Dilute Exhaus t
R egulated Emis s ions Sample
Particulate Sampling
Unregulated Emis s ions Sample
Filter B ox
Particulate Pump
C ritical Flow Venturi
10
Vehicle Emission Testing
11
Ambient air quality monitoring in urban microenvironments such as sidewalks, bus stations,
parking garages, under different climate
conditions
- Slater Street, Ottawa
12
• Ambient sampling
stations constructed
at ETC for roadside
measurement of
VOC, PM2.5, and
carbonyl
compounds
13
• Oznur Oguz, a
visiting researcher
from Middle East
Technical University,
Ankara, Turkey,
taking
measurements in
January 2000,
Slater Street,
Ottawa
14
• Measuring
concentration of
VOC and carbonyl
compound pollutant
levels inside
vehicles
15
Chemical Mass Balance Receptor Modelling
to determine contribution of different sources
to measured pollutant concentrations
Source 1
xi1 i=1,n
Receptor
yi i=1,n
3
1
Source 2
xi2 i=1,n
Source 3
xi3 i=1,n
2
16

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